Found 215 talks archived in Galaxies

Thursday March 2, 2023
Dr. Carlo Cannarozzo



Early-type galaxies: instructions to build them through mergers
Massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) are "red and dead" systems mainly composed of old and metal-rich stellar populations. In a cosmological context, present-day ETGs are believed to be the remnants of a complex stellar mass assembly history marked by several mergers, which are the consequence of the underlying hierarchical assembly of their host dark matter halos. In this talk, I will deal mainly with the merger-driven evolution of ETGs. Firstly, I will illustrate a comparison between observed ETGs from the MaNGA survey and simulated galaxies from the IllustrisTNG cosmological simulation suite. The aim of this study is to provide an interpretative scenario of the stellar mass assembly history of observed present-day ETGs, comparing the radial distributions of their stellar properties with those of simulated galaxies, in which it is possible to disentangle the contribution of stars formed in situ (i.e. within the main progenitor galaxy) and stars formed ex situ (i.e. in other galaxies) and then accreted through mergers. Then, I will describe how the scaling relation between the stellar mass and stellar velocity dispersion in ETGs evolves across cosmic time. Specifically, by extending the results of Cannnarozzo, Sonnenfeld & Nipoti (2020), I model the aforementioned relation through a Bayesian hierarchical approach, considering ETGs with log(M∗/M⊙) > 9 over the redshift range 0 ≲ z ≲ 4. Together with a new characterisation of the relation, I reconstruct the back-in-time evolutionary pathways of individual ETGs on the stellar mass-velocity dispersion plane to answer the question “how did high-redshift ETGs assemble through cosmic time to reach the functional form of the relation in the present-day Universe?“.
After the main topic, if time permits, I would like to spend a few minutes presenting another extra content (below you can find the title and a brief abstract of this further content). Feel free to include it or not in the announcement mail.
EXTRA - Inferring the Dark Matter halo mass in galaxies from other observables with Machine Learning
In the context of the galaxy-halo connection, it is widely known that the Dark Matter (DM) halos show correlations with some physical properties of the hosted galaxy: the most well-known relation is the so-called Stellar-to-Halo-Mass Relation. However, we know that there are several other empirical relations among galaxy properties, involving, for example, the stellar mass, the gas and stellar metallicities, the black hole mass, etc. Given the complexity of the problem and the high number of galaxy properties that might be related to DM halos, the study of the galaxy-halo connection can be approached by relying on machine learning techniques to shed light on this intricate network of relations. With the aim of inferring the DM halo mass and then finding a unique functional form able to link the halo mass to other observables in real galaxies, I rely on the state-of-the-art Explainable Boosting Machine, a novel implementation of generalised additive models with pairwise interactions, training a model on the IllustrisTNG simulation suite at different redshift.





Thursday February 23, 2023
Prof. Mauro D'Onofrio
University of Padova


I present a detailed analysis of the scaling relations of ETGs and suggest a way to predict the evolution of the distributions of galaxies in these planes. This new approach is able to account of several features observed in the FP projections and of the tilt of the Fundamental Plane.


Thursday February 16, 2023
Dr. Rogério Riffel
Astronomy Department of the Physics Institute of the Federal Universisty of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS)



Since the pioneering studies linking the mass of supermassive black holes (SMBH) with the velocity dispersion of their host galaxies bulges it has become accepted that the products of active galactic nuclei (AGN) accretion and star-formation (SF) are somehow related. It is also accepted that nuclear SF and AGN can coexist in the inner region of galaxies, suggesting that the growth of SMBH (by gas accretion) and galaxies (by forming stars) are coupled.  In terms of galaxy evolution, it is established that AGN feedback plays a fundamental role by impacting SF (quenching, suppressing, or triggering). Cosmological simulations performed without the inclusion of feedback (SNR/AGN) effects are not able to reproduce the low and high luminosity ends of the galaxy luminosity function and underestimate the ages of the stars of the most massive galaxies when compared with observations.  While observations have shown that nuclear star formation is common in AGNs, properly measuring the stellar population properties in AGNs hosts is particularly difficult, since the active nucleus will dilute the absorption features and contribute to a large number of ionizing photons that will make it difficult to use emission line fluxes to infer the stellar properties.  In this seminar, I will discuss the results we have obtained in our group when mapping the stellar population in the inner region of active galaxies, with a special focus on the near-infrared spectral region, which allows for a better untangling of the AGN and stellar contributions for the spectral energy distribution of the galaxies. 

Meeting ID: 817 0462 3667
Passcode: 643393

Tuesday February 14, 2023
Dr. Nicolas Martin
Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg


Dwarf galaxies are powerful tools of near-field cosmology and galactic archaeology: their numbers, distribution, and star formation can be linked to both the tenets of LCDM (the missing satellite "problem," their (an)isotropic distribution, their dark matter content) and to the build up of their hosts and their environment (accretion, quenching). The exquisite detail offered by observation of the nearby Milky Way dwarf galaxies has built a picture of what dwarf galaxies are and how they evolved through time. In this talk, I will review the increasingly sharp view we are building of the dwarf-galaxy system of the Milky Way's "sister" galaxy, Andromeda, and emphasize key similarities and differences between these two systems of satellites in the hope to learn what features are common or, on the contrary, driven by the different pasts of the Milky Way and Andromeda.

Thursday December 15, 2022
Dr. Rui Marques-Chaves
Univ. Genève


In this talk, I will present recent results on a new sample of extremely UV-luminous star-forming galaxies at z=2-4 discovered within the 9000deg^2-wide Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey database of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. These puzzling sources show apparent magnitudes rivaling those of bright QSOs, but without any hint of AGN activity or being magnified by gravitational lensing. Instead, these sources are characterized by very young stellar populations (~ 10 Myr) and compact morphologies. The two highest-redshift sources in our sample show very high Lyman continuum (LyC, with >13.6 eV) escape fractions, up to fesc(LyC)~90%, being the most powerful ionizing sources identified so far among the star-forming galaxy population, both in terms of the intrinsic LyC photon production rate and escape. With SFRs~1000 Msun/yr, but almost un-obscured, and specific star formation sSFR >50-100 Gyr^-1, these sources are very efficient star-forming galaxies, possibly representing a short-lived phase in the evolution of massive and compact galaxies. I will highlight some unique properties observed in these sources including LyC emission, complex Lyman-alpha profiles, strong wind lines, SEDs, among others. Finally, I discuss the properties of these UV-bright sources in the broad context of galaxy formation and evolution, and possible implications to cosmic reionization.

Thursday December 1, 2022
Dr. Virginia Cuomo
Universidad de Atacama


Bars are prominent features observed in most disc galaxies, having a crucial

role in the secular evolution of their hosts. Indeed, they redistribute material
within the galaxies, while rotating around the centre at a given angular frequency,
the bar pattern speed.
When formed in an isolated galaxy, a bar is expected to be born as fast rotating
with a bar rotation rate R (a parameter used to describe the bar pattern speed)
equal to 1.0 ≤ R ≤ 1.4. During its evolution, the bar can be slowed through the
exchange of angular momentum with the other components and/or when an efficient
dynamical friction is exerted by the dark matter (DM) halo. In this case, R is
shifted in the slow regime (R > 1.4), while the bar radius and strength are increasing.
On the other hand, ultrafast (UF) bars, with R < 1.0, are physically unstable.
Measuring the bar rotation rate becomes desirable both to investigate the secular
evolution of barred galaxies and to test whether the measured DM distribution matches
that predicted by cosmological simulations in the cold DM framework.
The only model-independent way to recover the bar pattern speed (and derive R) is
the Tremaine-Weinberg (TW) method, nowadays largely applied thanks to the advent
of integral-field spectroscopy: most of the analysed bars are compatible with the
fast regime, while a non-negligible fraction belongs to the unstable UF regime.
As a consequence, the question arises whether these results are biased by an
improper application of the method or instead they come from a not completely
theoretically understanding of the nature of slow/UF bars.
We explore the open questions on bar pattern speed with the TW method by
1. testing the reliability of the TW measurements which led to UF bars
2. pushing further the quest of slow bars applying the TW method to a sample of
dwarf galaxies, the best candidates to host slowly-rotating bars, since they are
commonly thought to host a massive and centrally-concentrated DM halo.
We measure the bar radius from the analysis of the maps tracing the transverse-to-radial
force ratio, showing that UF bars are no longer observed when the correct measurement
of the bar radius is adopted to derive R.
We apply the TW method to dedicated MUSE observations of a sample of 5 dwarf barred
galaxies from the Virgo cluster, showing that the analysed bars are slowly-rotating. This
suggests they could have been slowed down by a dense and massive DM halo.

Meeting ID: 885 2034 1620     
Passcode: 818629



Tuesday October 4, 2022
Krzysztof Lisiecki
National Centre for Nuclear Research, Warsaw, Poland


Vimos Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) is a spectroscopic survey designed to  investigate the spatial distribution of ~90k galaxies on redshift 0.4<z<1.2. The catalogue of spectroscopic observations, combined with auxiliary photometric data, is perfect for evolutionary studies of different types of galaxies. But also for tracing rare objects. One of them are the so-called “red nuggets”, progenitors of the most massive galaxies in the local Universe.  The discovery of red nuggets - highly massive, passive and extremely compact galaxies  -  at high redshift challenged the leading cosmological models, as they do not fit into the evolutionary paths of passive galaxies. Taking into account  that  the galaxies' mergers are stochastic events, it is possible that some red nuggets  remain relatively unaltered for billions of years. Those survivors constitute a group of unique galaxies in the local Universe,  commonly named “relics”. Despite numerous studies dedicated to red nuggets and relics, the link between the population of compact, massive, passive galaxies in the early Universe and their remnants in the local Universe, is still poorly understood.

In my talk I  will present the first spectroscopically selected catalogue of red nuggets at the intermediate redshift.  It is the most extensive catalogue of this kind of galaxies above redshift z > 0.5.  Selected under the most strict criteria, the group of 77 objects consists of a statistically important sample, which allows for analysis of physical properties of those rare passive giants. I will discuss the influence of compactness criteria on the sample size. Moreover I will present  VIPERS red nuggets number densities and discuss the environmental preferences of those exceptional galaxies.

Thursday September 29, 2022
Dr. Enrico Garaldi
Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics


The formation of the first galaxies in the Universe is the new frontier of both galaxy formation and reionization studies. In fact, we will soon directly observe primeval galaxies thanks to the James Webb Space Telescope, and witness the reionization process through 21cm intensity mapping experiments. This unique moment in human history creates a fierce new challenge, i.e. to simultaneously understand in a unique and coherent picture the processes of galaxy formation and reionization, and – crucially – their connection. The latter, in particular, has escaped past numerical efforts. In this talk I will present the first results on this front from an years-long effort geared toward achieving such comprehensive picture, culminated in the Thesan suite of cosmological radiation-magneto-hydrodynamical simulations. I will briefly introduce the features of Thesan, highlighting the successes and failures of its physical model. Thesan produces realistic galaxy populations thanks to state-of-the-art physics, including self-consistent dust production+destruction and radiation transport. I will then show how Thesan can, for the first time, reproduce the connection between IGM and galaxies, as measured from the modulation of the Lyman-alpha flux around galaxies. Finally, I will chart the way forward towards and even deeper understanding of the emergence of the first structures in the Universe.

Thursday September 15, 2022
Drs. Giuliana Fiorentino
Observatorio de Roma


The first Gigayears of our Galactic halo can be probed by using ancient stellar populations as traced by RR Lyrae stars. Today, with the advancement in our knowledge of RR Lyrae properties belonging to the Halo and to Milky Way satellite systems (Globular clusters and dwarf galaxies) we are able
to provide solid constraints on the link between these stellar systems. Here, we present some recent results concerning the Halo formation by using a detailed evolutionary analysis of RR Lyrae stars for which chemical abundances are available.

Thursday July 14, 2022
Dr. Jorge Sanchez-Almeida


With the aim of detecting cosmological gas accretion onto galaxies of the local Universe, we examined the Ha emission in the halo of the 164 galaxies in the field of view of MUSE-Wide (Urrutia+19) with observable Ha (redshift < 0.42).  An exhaustive screening of the Ha images led us to select 118 reliable Ha emitting gas clouds. To our surprise, around 38 % of the time the Ha line profile shows a double peak centered at the rest-frame of the corresponding galaxy. We have explored several physical scenarios to explain this Ha emission, among which accretion disks around rogue  intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs) fit the observations best. I will describe the data analysis (to discard, e.g, instrumental artifacts and high redshift interlopers), the properties of the Ha emitting clumps (their fluxes, peak separation, and spatial distribution with respect to the central galaxy), and the arguments leading to the IMBH hypothesis rather than other alternatives (e.g., cosmological gas, expanding bubbles, or shocks in the circum galactic medium).