Found 18 talks width keyword dwarf galaxies

Video
Thursday May 21, 2015
Dr. Shoko Jin
Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, Groningen, NL

Abstract

The immediate surroundings of our Milky Way galaxy are home to a number of dwarf galaxies, whose variety in shape, size, spatial location and velocity tells us that these Galactic satellites all have different tales to tell. While some look round, pristine and undisturbed, others have disturbed morphologies or show gradients in their metallicity, while yet others have unusual kinematic features or clearly show their dissolution into a stellar stream. Very few of them contain significant levels of gas, also prompting the question of what mechanism is responsible for stripping out their gas content. This talk will explore the eclectic mix of Milky Way dwarf galaxies and what their properties can reveal to us about their different stories, and also what they can collectively tell us of our own Galaxy. I will also discuss how looking at the Galactic vicinity is aiding us, via this population of Galactic satellites, in the increasingly popular area of near-field cosmology.


Video
Tuesday January 27, 2015
Mr. Ben Hendricks
Univ of Heidelberg

Abstract

Dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies are the smallest, closest and most abundant galaxies in the Universe and therefore excellent laboratories to study star formation (SF) history and chemical evolution on the smallest
scales. However, the complexity within---and variations between---these objects are poorly understood, not least because the vast majority of present-day data is restricted to the most central regions of these systems.
Thus, the scope of this talk is to present the results from our chemodynamical analysis (i.e., combining chemical abundances, stellar
ages, and precise dynamical measurements from high-resolution spectra) of the outer regions of Fornax and to put them in a general context of the chemical evolution in dSphs and their key-regulating factors. On this basis, possible (and impossible) evolutionary scenarios for Fornax are discussed and compared with model predictions.  Furthermore, Fornax is one amongst very few dSphs with an own globular cluster population. In the last part of my talk I use the results from our analysis and discuss
ongoing projects designed to address the impact of globular clusters on the evolution of this galaxy, and vice versa.


Video
Thursday October 9, 2014
Dr. Eva Grebel
Director Astronomisches Rechen-Institut Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg

Abstract

Dwarf galaxies are the most common type of galaxy in the Universe andinclude the most dark-matter-dominated objects known. They offerintriguing insights into evolutionary processes at low halo masses and low metallicities. Moreover, as survivors of a once much more numerous population of building blocks of larger galaxies, they are key to understanding very early star formation processes. The Local Group and particularly the Milky Way's dwarf galaxy entourage offer us the unique possibility to compare in detail dwarf and Galactic populations. This is an important step towards quantifying the magnitude and time scales of dwarf contributions to the build-up of the Milky Way and allows us to test predictions of cosmological theories and hierarchical structure formation.


Video
Tuesday June 24, 2014
Dr. Ewa Lokas
Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Warsaw

Abstract

I will present an evolutionary model for the origin of Andromeda II, a dSph satellite of M31, involving a merger between two disky dwarf galaxies than explains the origin of prolate rotation recently detected in the kinematic data for And II. The simulation traces the evolution of two dwarfs, whose structural parameters differ only in their disk scale lengths, placed on a radial orbit towards each other with their angular momenta inclined by 90 deg. After 5 Gyr the merger remnant forms a stable triaxial galaxy with rotation only around the longest axis. This prolate rotation is naturally explained as due to the symmetry of the initial configuration which leads to the conservation of angular momentum components along the direction of the merger. The stars originating from the two dwarfs show significantly different surface density profiles while having very similar kinematics in agreement with the properties of separate stellar populations in And II. I will also discuss an alternative scenario for the formation of And II, via tidal stirring of a disky dwarf galaxy. While intrinsic rotation occurs naturally in this model as a remnant of the initial rotation of the disk, it is mostly around the shortest axis of the stellar component. The rotation around the longest axis is induced only occasionally and remains much smaller that the system's velocity dispersion. I conclude that although tidal origin of the velocity distribution in And II cannot be excluded, it is much more naturally explained within the scenario involving a past merger event. Thus, in principle, the presence of prolate rotation in dSph galaxies of the Local Group and beyond may be used as an indicator of major mergers in their history or even as a way to distinguish between the two scenarios of their formation.


Video
Thursday April 10, 2014
Dr. Andreas Pawlik
MPA (Garching)

Abstract

The first galaxies are thought to have started the reionization of the Universe, that is the transformation of the cosmic hydrogen from its initial neutral to its present ionized state that occurred during the first few hundred million years after the Big Bang. I will review the key physics of reionization by the first galaxies and highlight the computational challenges of simulating the relevant processes, primarily the transport of ionizing photons. I will introduce the radiative transfer method TRAPHIC that we have developed to address these challenges. I will discuss the application of TRAPHIC in zoomed cosmological simulations of the first galaxies and evaluate the prospects for observing these galaxies with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. I will conclude by presenting first results from Aurora, a new suite of simulations to investigate reionization and galaxy formation across a large range of scales.


Video
Wednesday March 26, 2014
Dr. Thorsten Lisker
Astronomisches Rechen-Institut (ARI), Heidelberg

Abstract

Dwarf galaxies are a complex population. They comprise objects with young and old stellar populations, slow and fast rotation, as well as single- and multi-component structure. These characteristics show correlations with environmental density - we thus believe that dwarf galaxies hold a fossil record of how environment affected galaxy evolution. In this talk I will review and discuss recent progress on our understanding of dwarf galaxies in clusters, both from the observational and the modelling side. In particular, I will attempt to reconcile the proposed formation mechanisms of early-type dwarf galaxies - the most abundant population in clusters - with the continuous environmental influence predicted by cosmological simulations.


Video
Wednesday January 8, 2014
Dr. Ruben Sanchez-Janssen
NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics

Abstract

Two competing effects appear to govern galaxy multiplicity (pairs orgroups) at low masses: while associations of low-mass haloes are naturally expected in a LCDM cosmology, galaxy formation within these haloes is thought to be rendered inefficient due to the action of several ionizing agents. Yet associations of dwarf galaxies are known to exist in the Local Volume, and their frequency appears to be unexpectedly high for LCDM expectations even in our own Local Group. Unfortunately, it is not yet well understood what role do interactions between low-mass galaxies play in determining their star formation histories, structural properties, and neutral gas content. Here I will present an investigation of the impact of dwarf-dwarf galaxy tidal interactions on their morphological and star formation properties. The UGC5205 close pair consists of two low-mass (M* ~ 5E7 Msun), late-type galaxies with a relative projected distance of only 10 kpc, and no nearby massive companions. I will show that these equal-mass interactions can be an important 'pre-processing' mechanism that acts before dwarfs are affected by a more massive central galaxy, profoundly impacting their star formation histories and morphologies.


Video
Thursday December 12, 2013
Prof. Leticia Carigi
UNAM

Abstract

Based on the double exponential behaviour of the gas mass profile and on the O/H gradient, Robles-Valdez, Carigi & Peimbert (2013) built a sucessful chemical evolution model for M33. The model predicts that in the inner parts of M33 the star formation history follows an inside-out scenario, like M31 or the MW, but in the outer parts of M33 the star formation history follows an outside-in scenario, as dwarf galaxies of the Local Group.


Video
Thursday October 3, 2013
Dr. Joery Schroyen
University of Gent

Abstract

Today we largely understand the large scale evolution of the Universe but we have only little knowledge of the small scale physics involved in forming and evolving the baryonic structure (gas, stars and dust) of galaxies. Dwarf galaxies are considerd to be the ideal ”galactic laboratories” to gain insight into the astrophysical processes governing galaxy evolution in general. The obvious main feature of a dwarf galaxy is, that it is small - about 1/10 of the Milky Way’s size. Their relatively shallow gravitational potential makes them very sensitive to the different (astro)physical processes that affect galaxy evolution and counteract gravity. Hence we can use these galaxies to try to understand and answer the questions we still have about how, when and why galaxies form stars, stop forming stars, and recycle stellar-synthesised elements in the interstellar medium. Experimenting in these “galactic laboratories” is of course confined to the virtual universe, which we do by running state- of-the-art Nbody-SPH simulations of dwarf galaxy formation and evolution. Due to their small dimensions, these can achieve much higher resolution and physical detail than any other type of galactic simulations. In this talk, I will discuss the main prop- erties/parameters determining the behaviour and appearance of the dwarf galaxy models, and use the results to compare with and explain observations.


Video
Tuesday September 17, 2013
Prof. Justin Read
University of Surrey, UK

Abstract

Dark matter makes up most of the mass of the Universe but remains mysterious. I discuss recent progress in constraining its properties by measuring its distribution in the Universe from tiny dwarf galaxies to giant galaxy clusters, and comparing this with numerical simulations. The latest results favour a cold, collisionless particle that must lie beyond the standard model of particle physics. I discuss the known small scale problems with this model: the cusp-core and missing satellites problems, and I argue that these are likely due to baryonic "feedback" during galaxy formation. I conclude with a discussion of experiments underway to detect dark matter particles, and the role that astrophysics has to play in these too. There is an exciting a very real prospect of detecting a dark matter particle in the next five years.


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