Found 22 talks width keyword dwarf galaxies
Two competing effects appear to govern galaxy multiplicity (pairs orgroups) at low masses: while associations of low-mass haloes are naturally expected in a LCDM cosmology, galaxy formation within these haloes is thought to be rendered inefficient due to the action of several ionizing agents. Yet associations of dwarf galaxies are known to exist in the Local Volume, and their frequency appears to be unexpectedly high for LCDM expectations even in our own Local Group. Unfortunately, it is not yet well understood what role do interactions between low-mass galaxies play in determining their star formation histories, structural properties, and neutral gas content. Here I will present an investigation of the impact of dwarf-dwarf galaxy tidal interactions on their morphological and star formation properties. The UGC5205 close pair consists of two low-mass (M* ~ 5E7 Msun), late-type galaxies with a relative projected distance of only 10 kpc, and no nearby massive companions. I will show that these equal-mass interactions can be an important 'pre-processing' mechanism that acts before dwarfs are affected by a more massive central galaxy, profoundly impacting their star formation histories and morphologies.
Based on the double exponential behaviour of the gas mass profile and on the O/H gradient, Robles-Valdez, Carigi & Peimbert (2013) built a sucessful chemical evolution model for M33. The model predicts that in the inner parts of M33 the star formation history follows an inside-out scenario, like M31 or the MW, but in the outer parts of M33 the star formation history follows an outside-in scenario, as dwarf galaxies of the Local Group.
Today we largely understand the large scale evolution of the Universe but we have only little knowledge of the small scale physics involved in forming and evolving the baryonic structure (gas, stars and dust) of galaxies. Dwarf galaxies are considerd to be the ideal ”galactic laboratories” to gain insight into the astrophysical processes governing galaxy evolution in general. The obvious main feature of a dwarf galaxy is, that it is small - about 1/10 of the Milky Way’s size. Their relatively shallow gravitational potential makes them very sensitive to the different (astro)physical processes that affect galaxy evolution and counteract gravity. Hence we can use these galaxies to try to understand and answer the questions we still have about how, when and why galaxies form stars, stop forming stars, and recycle stellar-synthesised elements in the interstellar medium. Experimenting in these “galactic laboratories” is of course confined to the virtual universe, which we do by running state- of-the-art Nbody-SPH simulations of dwarf galaxy formation and evolution. Due to their small dimensions, these can achieve much higher resolution and physical detail than any other type of galactic simulations. In this talk, I will discuss the main prop- erties/parameters determining the behaviour and appearance of the dwarf galaxy models, and use the results to compare with and explain observations.
Dark matter makes up most of the mass of the Universe but remains mysterious. I discuss recent progress in constraining its properties by measuring its distribution in the Universe from tiny dwarf galaxies to giant galaxy clusters, and comparing this with numerical simulations. The latest results favour a cold, collisionless particle that must lie beyond the standard model of particle physics. I discuss the known small scale problems with this model: the cusp-core and missing satellites problems, and I argue that these are likely due to baryonic "feedback" during galaxy formation. I conclude with a discussion of experiments underway to detect dark matter particles, and the role that astrophysics has to play in these too. There is an exciting a very real prospect of detecting a dark matter particle in the next five years.
The life cycle of baryonic matter in a galaxy is driven by the exchange of material between the interstellar medium (ISM) and stars, which are the agents of galaxy evolution. Dust is present at these key transition phases of matter: in the ISM, in the circumstellar environments of newly forming stars and in stellar ejecta of dying stars. The Spitzer and Herschel wavelengths provide a sensitive probe of circumstellar and interstellar dust and hence, allows us to study the physical processes of the ISM, the formation of new stars and the injection of mass by evolved stars and their relationships on a galaxy-wide scale. Due to their proximity, well constrained viewing angle, multi-wavelength information, and measured tidal interactions with the Milky Way (MW), the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) are uniquely suited for surveying the agents of galaxy evolution (SAGE), the ISM and stars. In this talk, I will present some key results from the Spitzer SAGE and Herschel HERITAGE surveys including measurements of ISM mass estimates from dust emission, discoveries of thousands of young stellar object candidates, and precise measurements of dust mass loss rates from entire populations of evolved stars and w the mass budgets of these galaxies. I will end with a brief forward look to the future prospects with the James Webb Space Telescope Mission.
Crucial issues in cosmology and astrophysics are to understand the
process of galaxy formation and evolution and the nature of what
appears to be the dominant form of matter in the Universe, i.e. dark
matter. Dwarf galaxies provide important information on both of these
issues. In this talk, I will focus on the dwarf galaxies found in the
Local Group, as it is the galaxy population that can be studied in
the greatest detail than any other from the properties of their
resolved stellar populations. I will show how wide-area surveys have
led to a leap forward in our observational understanding of these
galaxies and discuss future prospects.
We present the detailed Star Formation History of the nearby Sculptor and Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxies, from wide-field photometry of resolved stars, going down to the oldest Main Sequence Turn-Off. The accurately flux calibrated, wide-field Colour-Magnitude Diagrams are used directly in combination with spectroscopic metallicities of individual RGB stars to constrain the ages of different stellar populations, and derive the Star Formation History with particular accuracy.
The detailed Star Formation History shows the star formation at different ages and metallicities, at different positions in the galaxy, and shows that the known metallicity gradients are well matched to an age gradient. The obtained SFH is used to determine accurate age estimates for individual RGB stars, for which spectroscopic abundances (alpha-elements, r- and s-process elements) are known. In this way, we obtain the accurate age-metallicity relation of each galaxy, as well as the temporal evolution of alpha-element abundances.
This allows us to study, for the first time, the timescale of chemical evolution in these two dwarf galaxies, and determine an accurate age of the "knee" in the alpha-element distribution. Finally, we compare the timescale of chemical evolution in both dwarf galaxies, and determine whether the chemical abundance patterns seen in galaxies with recent episodes of star formation are a direct continuation of those with only old populations.
AbstractEarly-type dwarfs (dEs) are by far the most abundant galaxy population in nearby clusters. Whether these objects are primordial, or recent end-products of the different physical mechanisms that can transform galaxies once they enter these high-density environments, is still a matter of debate. Here we present a novel approach to test the latter scenario by comparing the properties of the globular cluster systems of dEs and their potential progenitors with simple predictions from gravitational and hydrodynamical interactions. Current data in the literature do not favour violent mechanisms, but gentle processes with long timescales or that took place at the early stages of their formation.
(1) In this talk I will present a recent study of the bar fraction in the Coma Cluster galaxies based on a sample of 190 galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6 and observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Survey (ACS). The unprecedented resolution of the HST-ACS images allows us to explore the presence of bars, detected by visual classification, throughout a luminosity range of 9 mag (-23 < Mr < -14), permitting us to study the poor known region of dwarf galaxies. We find that bars are hosted by galaxies in a tight range of both luminosities (-22 < Mr < -17) and masses (109 < M/M? < 1011). This result holds when compared with a sample of bright/massive field galaxies. In addition, we find that the bar fraction does not vary significantly when going from the center to the cluster outskirts, implying that cluster environment plays a second-order role in bar formation/evolution. The shape of the bar fraction distribution with respect to both luminosity and mass is well matched by the luminosity distribution of disk galaxies in Coma, indicating that bars are good tracers of cold stellar disks. We discuss the implications of our results for the formation and evolution scenarios of bars and disks.
(2) The Herschel Space Observatory was launched on 14 May 2009. After a short commissioning and performance verification period, the science demonstration observations started in September 2009. Herschel is carrying out now routine science observations. The three instruments (SPIRE, PACS and HIFI) are working extremely well. The first results of the many Herschel Key Projects were presented at the ESLAB 2010 conference in ESTEC on May 4-7 2010 and will be published in a special issue of Astronomy and Astrophysics. In this talk I will introduce the observing capabilities of Herschel and will review some of the first results in extragalactic astronomy and in particular those of the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES).
AbstractGalaxies are the basic building blocks of the Universe, and understanding their formation and evolution is crucial to many areas of current astrophysical research. Nearby galaxies, being the 'fossil record' of the evolution of galaxies, provide a wealth of detail to test extensively the current models of galaxy formation and evolution. A galaxy's structure is linked to both its mass and evolutionary history. Probing galactic structure requires understanding the distribution of stars among galaxies of all types and luminosities across the full range of environments. We are performing a complete volume-limited (d < 40 Mpc) survey of over 2200 nearby spiral, elliptical and dwarf galaxies at 3.6 and 4.5 μ in the Spitzer Warm Mission to address fundamental questions of galactic structure that are united by the common need for deep, uniform, unbiased maps of the stellar mass in galaxies. I will introduce the survey, give examples of images and of the science that can be done, and explain how other researchers at the IAC can become involved in analysing these exciting data.
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- TBDThursday December 14, 2023 - 10:30 GMT (Aula)
- GESCOPThursday January 18, 2024 - 10:30 GMT (Aula)