Found 76 talks archived in Cosmology

rafael_rebolo_jose_rubino_ricardo_genova_130502s
Thursday May 2, 2013
Prof. Rafael Rebolo, Drs. R. Genova-Santos & J. A. Rubiño-Martin
IAC

Abstract

1) Overview on Planck and QUIJOTE. R. Rebolo 15 min. 2) The Galaxy as seen by Planck. R. Génova-Santos 15 min. 3) Planck Cosmological Results. J. A. Rubiño-Martín 20 min (times approximate). We will give an overview of two Cosmic Microwave Experiments with a significant involvement of the IAC. The ESA mission Planck has recently released its first set of Cosmological Results. QUIJOTE is a CMB polarization experiment which has recently started scientific operation at Teide Observatory. We will show the first results and the potential of QUIJOTE and we will provide an overview of the Planck mission and its impact on Galactic science and on Cosmology.


esra_rusell_130122s
Tuesday January 22, 2013
Mrs. Esra Russell
University of Groningen

Abstract

Observational studies show that voids are prominent features of the large scale structure of the present day Universe. Even though their emerging from the primordial density perturbations and evolutionary patterns differ from dark matter halos, N-body simulations and theoretical models have shown that voids also merge together to form large void structures. In this study, progressing from previous works, we formulate a toy model to construct a merger tree algorithm of isolated spherical voids by adopting the halo merging algorithm given by Lacey and Cole (1993) in the Einstein de Sitter (EdS) universe. To do this, we take into account the general mass distribution of voids which consists of two main void sociologies: merging and collapsing. We show that the mass distribution function can be reduced to a simple form by neglecting the collapse void contribution. As a result of this, the void mass fraction has a contribution only from isolated gradually merging voids. This algorithm becomes the analogue of the halo merging algorithm. Based on this isolated spherical void distribution, we obtain the void merging algorithm, void merging rate and void survival times in terms of the self similar and standard cold dark matter models in the EdS universe.


beatriz_ruiz_granados_121205s
Wednesday December 5, 2012
Dr. Beatriz Ruiz Granados
Universidad de Granada

Abstract

Magnetic fields at galactic and larger scales is a challenging issue for astrophysics and cosmology. In this talk, I'll review the methods to detect magnetic fields at these scales as well as I'll revise the field structure of the Milky Way and its dynamical implications over the gas distribution. In the second part, I'll review the updated works about effects of primordial magnetic fields on large scale structure and I'll show you preliminary results on its imprint on cosmic microwave background. 


alexander_unzicker_121030s
Tuesday October 30, 2012
Dr. Alexander Unzicker
Pestalozzi-Gymnasium, Munich, Germany

Abstract

The concordance model of cosmology with its constituents dark matter and dark Energy is an established description of some anomalous observations. However, a series of additional contradictions indicate that the current view is far from satisfactory. Rather than describing observations with new numbers, it is argued that science should reflect its method, considering the fact that real progress was usually achieved by simplification. History, not only with the example of the epicycles, has shown many times that creating new ad-hoc concepts dominated over putting in doubt what had been established earlier. Also critical astrophysicists often believe that lab-tested particle physics has reliable evidence for its model. It is argued instead that the very same sociological and psychological mechanisms have been at work and brought particle physics in a still more deperate situation long ago. As an example, a couple of absurdities of the recent Higgs boson announcements are outlined. It seems inevitable that physics needs a new culture of data evaluation, raw data and source code must become equally transparent and openly accessible.


daniel_eisenstein_120216s
Thursday February 16, 2012
Dr. Daniel Eisenstein
SLOAN Digital Sky Survey, CfA Harvard, USA

Abstract

I will discuss how the acoustic oscillations that propagate in the photon-baryon fluid during the first million years of the Universe provide a robust method for measuring the cosmological distance scale. The distance that the sound can travel can be computed to high precision and creates a signature in the late-time clustering of matter that serves as a standard ruler. Galaxy clustering results from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey reveal this feature, giving a geometric distance to a redshift of 0.3 and an accurate measurement of Omega_matter. I will review our recent work on the theory and practice of the acoustic oscillation method and our latest cosmology results from SDSS-II. I will then present SDSS-III, which will use the acoustic method to produce 1% distance measurements in order to map the curvature and expansion history of the Universe and measure the evolution of dark energy.


jose_alberto_rubino_120209s
Thursday February 9, 2012
Dr. José Alberto Rubiño
Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Spain

Abstract

The European Space Agency's Planck satellite was launched on 14 May 2009, and has been surveying the sky stably and continuously since 13 August 2009. Its performance is well in line with expectations, and it will continue to gather scientific data until the end of its cryogenic lifetime. I will present the first scientific results of the mission, which appeared as a series of 26 papers at the beginning of this year 2011, covering a variety of astrophysical topics. In particular, I will focus on the results on galactic diffuse emissions, as well as the first results on galaxy clusters detected by means of the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect.


carlos_hernandez-monteagudo_111201s
Thursday December 1, 2011
Dr. Carlos Hernandez-Monteagudo

Abstract

I revisit the claim of Dark Energy detection after stacking CMB data on the angular position of voids and superclusters in Sloan Data. I examine the theoretically expected amplitude for the ISW-induced signal and explore its scale dependence. I next confront these predictions with results obtained from real WMAP data, and evaluate the degree of agreement and the possible presence of contaminants. In a more general context, I address the possibility of unveiling the signature of Dark Energy on the CMB by looking at isolated regions on the sky hosting high-threshold projected under/over-densities: this constitutes a novel approach since it is less sensitive to large angle systematics commonly present in large scale structure surveys.


mar_bastero_111026s
Wednesday October 26, 2011
Dr. Mar Bastero
Universidad de Granada, Spain

Abstract

In this talk I will review the subject of cosmological inflation, a period of early accelerated expansion. I will discuss Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology and the horizon and flatness problems, and introduce inflation as a solution to those problems. I will also discuss the generation of  the primordial (scalar and tensor) spectrum of perturbations which provides the seeds for the large scale structure in the Universe. I will review quickly the status of observations in relation to the inflationary parameters, and then the implications for model building.


martin_lopez_corredoira_110721s
Thursday July 21, 2011
Dr. Martín Lopez Corredoira
Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Spain

Abstract

I will review some theoretical ideas in Cosmology different to the standard "Big Bang": the Quasi-steady State model, Plasma Cosmology model, non-cosmological redshifts, alternatives to non-baryonic dark matter and/or dark energy, and others. Some open problems of Cosmology within the standard model will also be summarized.


miguel_angel_sanchez_conde_110720s
Wednesday July 20, 2011
Dr. Miguel Ángel Sánchez Conde
Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Spain

Abstract

What's the dark matter made of? Do we have any idea of the kind of particle that should constitute ~85% of the matter content of the Universe? In this talk, I will briefly explain the properties that such a particle might have and will present some of the proposed candidates that arise from beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. Next stop will be to give an overview of the present status of dark matter searches, mainly focusing on gamma-rays. There is a tremendous effort currently ongoing that involves an impressive battery of experiments both at the lab and observatories around the world.
In a second part,  the importance of N-body cosmological simulations for the understanding of how dark matter halos form and evolve from the early Universe will be discussed. At this point, some problems arise that it's worth mentioning and that will hopefully lead to debate.