Found 9 talks width keyword low-mass stars

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Thursday March 10, 2016
Mr. Sergio Velasco Muñoz
IAC

Abstract

I will summarize the two well proved techniques for high spatial resolution: Lucky Imaging and Adaptive Optics and the work of our group in this field. I will also introduce the state-of-the-art new instrument Adaptive Optics Lucky Imager (AOLI). On AOLI, both techniques merge providing a very versatile answer on the visible range. Some first science on the T-Tauri system LkHa 262/263 in the MBM 12 cloud will be reported together with a review of the next steps to be developed.


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Thursday June 11, 2015
Dr. Federico Marocco
University of Hertforshire

Abstract

 A comprehensive understanding of sub-stellar objects (brown dwarfs and extrasolar giant planets) and their population characteristics (e.g. IMF, formation history) is only possible through the robust interpretation of ultra-cool objects spectroscopy. However, the physics of ultra-cool atmospheres is complicated by a variety of challenging ingredients (dust properties, non-equilibrium chemistry, molecular opacities). Moreover, while hydrogen-burning stars stabilize on the stellar main-sequence, sub-stellar objects continuously cool down (since they lack an internal source of energy) and evolve towards later spectral types. Their atmospheric parameters are a strong function of age. In this talk I will present the spectroscopic analysis of a large sample of L and T dwarfs, complementing the spectroscopic data with astrometry from the PARSEC program, in order to constrain the sub-stellar initial mass function and formation history. I will then describe our new effort to identify and characterize a large sample of benchmark systems, combining Gaia capabilities with large area near-infrared surveys such as UKIDSS, SDSS, and VVV, in order to calibrate effectively the theoretical models.
    


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Thursday January 29, 2015
Dr. France Allard
Centre de Recherche Astronomique de Lyon

Abstract

Understanding the atmospheric and evolutive properties of very low mass stars, brown dwarfs, and gas giant exoplanets have been important challenges for modelers around the world since the discovery of the first brown dwarfs in the Pleiades cluster (Rebolo et al. 1995) and in the field (Nakajima et al. 1995). The early studies of brown dwarfs have provided rich insights into atmospheric physics, with discoveries ranging from cloud formation (Tsuji et al. 1996), methane bands (Oppenheimer et al. 1995) and ammonia bands (Delorme et al. 2008), to the formation of wasi-molecular KI-H2 absorption (Allard et al. 2007), and to disequilibrium chemistry (Yelle & Griffith 2001). New classical 1D models yield spectral energy distribution (SED) that match relatively well despite these complexities. These models have for instance explained the spectral transition from M to L, T and now Y brown dwarf spectral types (Allard et al. 2013). However, in presence of surface inhomogeneities revealed recently for a nearby (2 pc) brown dwarf (Crossfield et al. 2014), the SED may well fit even exactly, but the model parameters could be far from exact, e.g. with the effective temperature by several hundred kelvins too cool in the case of dusty brown dwarfs and young gas giant exoplanets! I will review the progress achieved in reproducing the spectral properties of very low mass stars, brown dwarfs and gas giant exoplanets, and review progress in modeling more accurately their atmospheres using Radiation HydroDynamical (RHD) simulations.


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Thursday October 2, 2014
Dr. Adam Burgasser
University of California San Diego

Abstract

Over the past two decades, advances in infrared instrumentation have allowed us to identify a vast and previously unseen population of low-temperature stars, brown dwarfs and free-floating extrasolar planets, collectively called ultracool dwarfs. These sources, with surface temperatures reaching below 0ºC, encompass three new spectral classes and include some of the nearest systems to the Sun. Research in this field is now concentrating on the physical characterization of the ultracool dwarf population and application to Galactic studies. In this talk, I will summarize the recent observational advances in ultracool dwarf research, including the recent discovery of the Y dwarf spectral class. I will then describe our ongoing IRTF/SpeX survey, which has measured the low-resolution, near-infrared spectra of over 1500 late M, L and T dwarfs and uncovered new subpopulations of young (5-30 Myr) brown dwarf, metal-poor halo brown dwarfs and short-period spectral binaries.


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Tuesday February 11, 2014
Dr. Jorge Casares
IAC

Abstract

Stellar-mass black holes have all been discovered through X-ray emission, which arises from the accretion of gas from their binary companions. Currently known black holes are fed by material stripped from a low-mass star or by the wind of a massive companion. Binary evolution models also predict the existence of black holes accreting from the equatorial envelope of rapidly spinning Be-type stars. However, among the ~80 Be X-ray binaries known in the Galaxy (~150 including the Magellanic Clouds), only pulsating neutron stars have been found as companions, which is known as the missing Be/black-hole X-ray binary problem. In this talk I present the first dynamical evidence for a 3.8-6.9 Msun black hole orbiting the Be star and gamma-ray candidate MWC 656 (=AGL J2241+4454). This discovery has been allowed by the detection of a HeII emission line from an accretion disc encircling the black hole. We find the black hole is X-ray quiescent with Lx<1.6 × 10−7 times the Eddington luminosity. This implies that Be binaries with black-hole companions are difficult to detect by conventional X-ray surveys and may be more abundant than predicted by population synthesis models.

 






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Thursday May 16, 2013
Dr. Yakiv Pavlenko
Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

Abstract

We discuss the role and significance of molecules in the modern astrophysics. Molecular opacities govern the structure of model atmospheres of late-type stars and ultracool dwarfs. Some problems of computations of model atmosphere and synthetical spectra of cool stars are discussed. We present some successful attempts of the application of the molecular spectroscpy for the studies of late -type stars and ultracool dwarfs. Finally, some problems of fitting theoretical spectra to the observed SED are discussed.


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Tuesday December 18, 2012
Dr. Eduardo Martin Guerrero
CAB

Abstract

 

Ultracool dwarfs represent the low-mass tail of the distribution of primary masses for which planets can be found with the Kepler satellite. Our team has identified 42 new ultracool dwarfs in the Kepler field of view that have started to be observed with this space telescope via its General Observer and Director Discretionary Time programs. First results of a study of Kepler light curves of 18 very low-mass dwarfs will be presented at this talk. It is demostrated that Kepler is sensitive to moon sized companions of ultracool dwarfs at short orbital periods (few days), and an intriguing candidate will be shown. Results from a ground-based infrared transit survey will also be presented which confirm the lack of Hot Jupiters around very low-mass primaries. Last but not least, a concept for a sustainable hybrid Hypertelescope that would be crucial to follow-up rocky planets will also be introduced.

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Tuesday March 13, 2012
Dr. Kerstin Geissler
European Southern Observatory

Abstract

We present the completion of a program to cross-correlate the SDSS Data Release 1 and 2MASS Point Source Catalog in search for extremely red L and T dwarfs. The program was initiated by Metchev and collaborators, who presented the findings on all newly identified T dwarfs in SDSS DR1, and estimated the space density of isolated T0--T8 dwarfs in the solar neighbourhood. In the current work we present most of the L dwarf discoveries. Our red-sensitive (z-J > 2.75 mag) cross-match proves to be efficient in detecting peculiarly red L dwarfs, adding two new ones, including one of the reddest known L dwarfs. Our search also nets a new peculiarly blue L7 dwarf and, surprisingly, two M8 dwarfs. We further broaden our analysis to detect unresolved binary L or T dwarfs through spectral template fitting to all L and T dwarfs presented here and in the earlier work by Metchev and collaborators. We identify nine probable binaries, six of which are new and eight harbour likely T dwarf secondaries. We combine this result with current knowledge of the mass ratio distribution and frequency of substellar companions to estimate an overall space density of 0.005--0.05 pc^{-3} for individual T0--T8 dwarfs.


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Tuesday June 21, 2011
Miss Karla Yulién Peña Ramírez
Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias

Abstract

The proper characterization of the least massive population of the young Sigma Orionis star cluster is required to understand the form of the cluster mass function and its impact on our comprehension of the substellar formation processes. SOri70 (T5.5±1) and SOri73, two T-type cluster member candidates, would have likely masses between 3 and 7 MJup if their age is 3 Myr. SOri73 awaits confirmation of its methane atmosphere. Here I present the results of a search of T-type objects in an area of ~120 arcmin^2 in the Sigma Orionis cluster, the confirmation of the presence of methane absorption in SOri73 and the study of SOri70 and 73 cluster membership via photometric colors and accurate proper motion analysis. This results would have a dramatic impact in the cluster mass function, in one of the scenarios explored, they suggest a decrease in cluster members with planetary masses in the interval 3.5-6 Mjup.


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