Found 16 talks width keyword gamma rays
Very-high-energy (VHE >~100 GeV) gamma rays are absorbed in Earth's
atmosphere and thus cannot be detected directly on Earth. Their fluxes
are also typically too low to efficiently study them with satellite
instruments. A VHE gamma ray entering the atmosphere initiates an
electromagnetic cascade that induces faint flashes of blueish
Cherenkov light. Such flashes can be then detected by Imaging
Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes registering images of passage of
individual gamma rays through the atmosphere.
The usage of atmosphere as a part of the detector allows us to achieve
a collection area of gamma rays over two orders of magnitude higher
than the physical size of the detector. But it also introduces
systematic errors connected with the atmosphere's transparency. In
particular, cloud presence during the observations can significantly
affect the data. In this seminar I will cover different methods used
to correct the influence of the clouds. I will show how lack of such a
correction introduces bias in the energy estimation of gamma rays. I
will present how the affected images of showers are degraded and thus
can be confused with background events, lowering the collection area
of the telescope. Finally, I will show a novel method of correcting
the influence of the clouds already at the image level, and discuss
the possibility of measuring the parameters of a cloud directly with
the observations by the Cherenkov telescopes.
The MAGIC telescopes are a stereoscopic system
of two 17m mirror diameter Cherenkov telescopes for gamma-ray observations, in operation since many years on the island of
La Palma at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos.
A new installation allows us to use those telescopes as optical
intensity interferometer which enables us to measure the size of bright
objects in the range of 0.6-1.5 milli-arcsec and other physical
parameters. In this presentation the setup is explained, our physics
targets, first results and also a future outlook of this project
with respect to the Cherenkov telescope array (CTA) currently
The improvement on the Imaging Air Cherenkov Technique led to the discovery of a new class of compact binaries: the gamma-ray binaries. This small class consist of only five members, all of them composed by a massive star and a compact object. The nature of the compact object is unknown for all of them but PSR B1259-63, which contains a pulsar. It is crucial to study and monitor these systems not only to understand their behavior, the scenario accounting for the gamma-ray emission and their nature but also to comprehend why we have not detected more sources of this exclusive family. In this presentation, I will review the state-of-the-art of this field and I will present the observations performed with the MAGIC telescopes in order to unveil the nature of gamma-ray binaries.
Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are among the most energetic transient phenomena frequently followed up by different observatories and yet several fundamental questions are still open. Fermi and MAGIC are continuing their observations of GRBs since several years, giving highest priorities to the most interesting events. This effort led to remarkable discoveries in the High Energy regime, showing potential for even more meaningful achievements in the Very High Energy (VHE) regime. Enhanced follow up strategies of MAGIC and soon to come CTA Large Size Telescopes (LST) observations create unique opportunities for the detection of GRBs at VHE. In this talk I will give an overview of the high energy GRB properties as seen by Fermi and show the potential for the first VHE detection with MAGIC and CTA LSTs.
Using ~320h of good-quality Crab data from Feb 2007 to Apr 2014 the MAGIC telescopes measured the most energetic pulsed photons from a pulsar to date. The new results obtained probe the Crab Pulsar as the most compact TeV accelerator known to date. The remarkable detection of pulsed emission up to 1.5 TeV revealed by MAGIC imposes severe constraints on where and how the underlying electron population produces gamma-rays at these energies. Such TeV pulsed photons require a parent population of electrons with a Lorentz factor of at least 5E6. These results strongly suggest IC scattering off low-energy photons as the emission mechanism and a gamma-ray production region in the vicinity of the light cylinder, requiring a revision of the state-of-the-art models proposed to explain how and where gamma-ray pulsed emission from 100 MeV to 1.5 TeV are produced. Investigating the extension of the very high-energy spectral tail of the Crab Pulsar at energies above 400 GeV, the pulse profile was found to show two narrow peaks synchronized with those measured in the GeV energy range. The spectra of the two peaks follow two different power-law functions from 70 GeV up to 1.5 TeV and connect smoothly with the spectra measured above 10 GeV by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi satellite.
The extragalactic background light (EBL) is the second most energetic diffuse background that fills our Universe. It is produced by star formation processes and supermassive black hole accretion over the history of the Universe. Thus, it contains fundamental information about galaxy evolution and cosmology. Interestingly, it brings together classical astronomy and high energy astrophysics since gamma-rays from extragalactic sources such as blazars and gamma-ray bursts interact by pair-production with EBL photons. Therefore, it is also essential for extragalactic gamma-ray astronomy to understand precisely and accurately the EBL in order to interpret correctly high energy observations. In this talk, I will review the present EBL knowledge, and describe how we can extract information, such as the value of the expansion rate of the Universe, from the EBL. Finally, the latest all-sky Fermi-LAT catalog of hard sources (E>50 GeV), called 2FHL, and future directions of EBL research will also be discussed.
In the last years star-forming regions and massive protostars have been suggested to be gamma-ray emitters. Isolated massive protostars present powerful outflows interacting with the surrounding medium. Some of these sources power non-thermal radio jets, indicative of particle acceleration up to relativistic energies. At the jet-termination region strong shocks form which can lead to gamma-ray emission, as theoretical models predict. It has also been prognosticated that the combined effect of several low-mass protostellar objects may produce significant amount of gamma rays. We present here two studies: IRAS 16547- 4247, an isolated protostar showing non-thermal radio emission; and Monoceros R2, a star forming region coincident with a source of the 2nd Fermi-LAT catalog. In the first case, we analized archival X-ray data and detected the source. We also studied the system in a broad- band one-zone model context and tried to fit the X-ray detection with a non-thermal model. In the second case, we analyzed 3.5 years of Fermi-LAT data and confirmed the source with a detection above 12 sigma. Our results are compatible with the source being the result the combined effect of multiple young stellar objects in Monoceros R2.
Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are the most powerful sources of electromagnetic radiation in the Universe. There are many open questions about their origin and their nature, and the answers should be searched in the large amount of data collected during these last years. We focused on the study of the their X-ray and optical afterglow properties, as observed by the Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and ground-based optical telescopes. We investigated the observer and rest-frame properties of all GRBs observed by Swift between December 2004 and December 2010 with spectroscopic redshift through a comprehensive statistical analysis of the XRT light-curves of GRBs carried out in a model-independent way. We found out a three parameter correlation that is followed both by short and long GRBs. We also carried out a systematic analysis of the optical data available in literature for the same GRBs to investigate the GRB emission mechanisms and to study their environment properties. Our analysis shows that the gas-to-dust ratios of GRBs are larger than the values calculated for the Milky Way, the Large Magellanic Cloud, and the Small Magellanic Cloud. In this talk I will show the major results of the analysis of this large set of data.
Long Gamma-Ray Bursts are flashes of high-energy radiation and are linked to the death of massive stars. I will first summarize the main aspects of GRB astronomy, ranging from gamma to infrared frequencies, and secondly I will show how long GRBs pinpoint star-forming galaxies. Afterwards, I will present recent results which indicate as the GRB host population resembles all kind of star-forming galaxies, even the most dusty ones, almost invisible in optical-dedicated surveys.
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- TBDThursday December 14, 2023 - 10:30 GMT (Aula)
- GESCOPThursday January 18, 2024 - 10:30 GMT (Aula)