Found 12 talks width keyword spiral galaxies

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Thursday May 22, 2014
Dr. Mirian Fernandez Lorenzo
IAA

Abstract

Different components of galaxies are the result of internal and environmental processes during their lifetimes. Disentangling these processes is an important issue for understanding how galaxies form and evolve. In this context isolated galaxies provide a fruitful sample for exploring galaxies which have evolved mainly by internal processes (minimal merger/accretion/tidal effects). I will present the structural analysis performed as part of the AMIGA (Analysis of the interstellar Medium of Isolated GAlaxies; http://www.amiga.iaa.es) project. The analysis of the stellar mass-size relation of our spiral galaxies reveals a larger size for disks in low-density environments, as well as a dependence of disk size on the number of satellites. A 2D bulge/disk/bar decomposition of SDSS i-band images was performed in order to identify the pseudobulges in our sample. We derived (g-i) bulge colors and find a large fraction of pseudobulges in the red sequence of early-type galaxies. The bluer pseudobulges in our sample tend to be located in those galaxies more affected by tidal interactions. The properties of the majority of bulges in isolated galaxies suggest that pseudobulges formed most of their mass at an early epoch, and that specific environmental events may rejuvenate pseudobulges.


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Wednesday February 12, 2014
Mr. Simon Diaz Garcia
University of Oulu (Finland)

Abstract

The ΛCDM model predicts that galaxies originate in dark matter haloes, undergoing in their early age a process of continuous merges with other galaxies that determines the first part of their evolution. The frequency of these events decreases with time and their gradual change turns to be internally driven, becoming much slower. Bars, elongated stellar structures in the central regions of galaxies, are known to play an active role in this phase of their evolution, so-called secular.

Bars are fundamentally responsible for the redistribution of matter and the angular momentum of the baryonic and dark matter components of disc galaxies. Different simulations predict that bars get stronger and longer in time, slowing down their rotation speed.

Based on the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G) 3.6 μm imaging, we aim to study the secular evolution of disc galaxies by focusing on their stellar bar parameters. We take a large well-defined sample of about 650 nearby barred galaxies and we infer the gravitational potential from 3.6 μm images. We calculate gravitational torques, the ratio of the maximal tangential force to the mean axisymmetric radial force, in order to obtain a quantitative measure of the bar-induced perturbation strengths. In addition, we estimate the bar strength from the m=2 normalized Fourier density amplitudes and determine bar lengths both visually and by using an ellipse fitting method. Bar morphology and the interplay with spiral arms are studied via image-stacking methods as well.

In this talk I will present the statistical results derived from our measurements, providing observational evidence for the evolution of bars in accordance with the current theoretical predictions. We study bar parameters as a function of the Hubble type, addressing how the different measurements of the bar strength correlate with each other and with the galactic mass. The quality of our data allows us to probe the properties of bars in the Local Universe and connect them to the evolution of other galactic structures.


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Thursday December 13, 2012
Dr. Eduardo Bataner
Universidad de Granada

Abstract

Hablaré de tres caprichos. El primero pretende responder a la pregunta: ¿Existen lentes magnéticas en el Cosmos? El segundo trata de un problema de Milagro, viendo cómo el campo magnético de nuestra galaxia puede resolver la anisotropía en la distribución de rayos cósmicos de unos 10 TeV. El tercero considera las curvas de rotación de algunas galaxias espirales que tras haber alcanzado la velocidad asintótica, vuelve a tener pendiente positiva.


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Tuesday June 26, 2012
Dr. Jonathan Heiner
Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Morelia, Mexico

Abstract

A simple model using the balance of photodissociation assuming a one-dimensional plane-parallel model yields total hydrogen volume densities for a column of atomic hydrogen under the influence of a far-ultraviolet radiation field. This can be applied wherever atomic hydrogen can be assumed to be the product of photodissociation, or perhaps where it is being kept in its atomic state because of the local radiation field. I have previously applied this model to the nearby spiral galaxies M33, M81 and M83 in the past, but the application is mostly manual and cumbersome. In order to make this method suitable to apply to larger samples of galaxies, we developed an automated procedure that identifies candidate PDRs, calculates the balance of photodissociation at locations where PDR-produced HI can be expected and provides total hydrogen volume densities. We applied the procedure to M83 as a consistency check. It is also ready to take advantage of the latest integral field spectroscopy data (metallicity), which we did in the case of M74. In principle this procedure is most suitable to probe the diffuse interstellar medium at the edges of HII regions in other galaxies than our own. However, if detailed morphological information is already available, we can improve our understanding of the method by applying it to very specific cases, such as parts of the Taurus molecular cloud. While the results are highly sensitive to the local morphology, they can potentially be used as an independent probe of the molecular gas.


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Thursday June 7, 2012
Dr. Juan Uson
observatoire de Paris - LERMA

Abstract

Superthin galaxies are bulgeless, late-type spiral galaxies seen edge-on.  HI synthesis observations probe the kinematic structure of their interstellar medium.  Observations of these isolated, quiescent galaxies have reached column densities as low as few x 1018  atoms . cm-2 .  The simple structure of the superthins makes them ideal cosmological laboratories (Uson and Matthews 2003). The strength of the cosmic UV background has a strong influence on the formation of structure in the Universe, from the inhibition of the collapse of small haloes to the ionizing escape fraction in galaxies to the global star formation history.  We have used the VIRUS-P integral-field spectrometer on the University of Texas McDonald Observatory 2.7m telescope to observe the edge of the superthin galaxies UGC7321 and UGC1281 in the Hα emission line, limiting the strength of the local UV background below theoretical expectations (Adams et al., 2011).  New,  observations (March 2011) have improved the sensitivity significantly.  The Hα layer shows a peak brightness of  Σ = 1.0 x 10-19 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2 Å-1 (~7σ)  for spectra smoothed with a 15″ spatial kernel.  This leads to a measurement of the cosmic UV background induced HI photoionization rate Γ = 2.0 x 10-14 s-1 (~7σ, preliminary absolute calibration, Uson et al, BAAS 44, 312-01, 2012).  Contrary to past observational attempts, our measurements covered a large, two-dimensional on-sky area. We reach flux limits that are ~50 times fainter than the sky background with significant smoothing over spatial elements and a sky background model that accounts for variations in the spectral resolution of our instrument.

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Tuesday May 17, 2011
Dr. Martín López Corredoira
Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Spain

Abstract

Milky Way and most spiral galaxies present some features in the outer part of its disk such as S-warping or U-warping, flaring, lopsidedness, truncation/non-truncation and others, both for the stellar and the gas component. In the present talk, I will review some of the galactic dynamics hypotheses which try to explain these features: either in terms of gravitational interaction, magnetic fields, accretion of intergalactic matter or others. The gravitational interaction may be among the different components of the galaxy or between the spiral galaxy and another companion galaxy. The accretion of intergalactic matter may be either into the halo, with a later gravitational interaction between the misaligned halo and the disc, or directly onto the disc. The phenomena of the outer disc in spiral galaxies might be produced by more than a mechanism. Nonetheless, the hypothesis of accretion of intergalactic matter onto the disc presents several advantages over its competitors, since it explains most of the relevant observed features, whereas other hypotheses only explain them partially.


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Thursday February 10, 2011
Dr. Christophe Morisset
Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM, Mexico

Abstract

We revisit the question of the ionization of the diffuse medium in late type galaxies, by studying NGC 891, the prototype of edge-on spiral galaxies. The most important challenge for the models considered so far was the observed increase of [O III]/Hβ, [O II]/Hβ and [N II]/Hα with increasing distance to the galactic plane. We propose a scenario based on the expected population of massive OB stars and hot low-mass evolved stars (HOLMES) in this galaxy to explain this observational fact. In the framework of this scenario we construct a finely meshed grid of photoionization models. For each value of the galactic latitude z we look for the models which simultaneously fit the observed values of the [O III]/Hβ, [O II]/Hβ and [N II]/Hα ratios. For each value of z we find a range of solutions which depends on the value of the oxygen abundance. The models which fit the observations indicate a systematic decrease of the electron density with increasing z. They become dominated by the HOLMES with increasing z only when restricting to solar oxygen abundance models, which argues that the metallicity above the galactic plane should be close to solar. They also indicate that N/O increases with increasing z.

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Tuesday January 25, 2011
Mr. José Ramón Sánchez Gallego
Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Spain

Abstract

In this talk I will present the first complete 12CO J=3-2 map of M81, observed as part of the Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey. We have detected nine regions of significant CO emission located at different positions within the spiral arms, and confirmed that the global CO emission in the galaxy is low. Using a new Hα map obtained with the Isaac Newton Telescope and archival data I will discuss a series of topics including the correlation between the molecular gas and star forming regions, the CO (3-2)/(1-0) line ratio, and the amount of hydrogen produced in photo-dissociation regions near the locations where CO J=3-2 was detected.


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Saturday October 24, 2009
Dr. Johan Knapen
Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Spain

Abstract

Galaxies are the basic building blocks of the Universe, and understanding their formation and evolution is crucial to many areas of current astrophysical research. Nearby galaxies, being the 'fossil record' of the evolution of galaxies, provide a wealth of detail to test extensively the current models of galaxy formation and evolution. A galaxy's structure is linked to both its mass and evolutionary history. Probing galactic structure requires understanding the distribution of stars among galaxies of all types and luminosities across the full range of environments. We are performing a complete volume-limited (d < 40 Mpc) survey of over 2200 nearby spiral, elliptical and dwarf galaxies at 3.6 and 4.5 μ in the Spitzer Warm Mission to address fundamental questions of galactic structure that are united by the common need for deep, uniform, unbiased maps of the stellar mass in galaxies. I will introduce the survey, give examples of images and of the science that can be done, and explain how other researchers at the IAC can become involved in analysing these exciting data.

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Tuesday March 24, 2009
Dr. Lia Athanassoula
Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, France

Abstract

I will propose a new theory to explain the formation and properties of rings and spirals in barred galaxies, focusing on a comparison of theoretical results to observations and giving some predictions for further comparisons. This theory can account for both spirals and rings, the latter both inner and outer. The model outer rings have the observed R1, R_1', R_2, R_2' and R_1R_2 morphologies, including the dimples near the direction of the bar major axis. It explains why the vast majority of spirals in barred galaxies are two armed and trailing and I will discuss what it takes for higher multiplicity arms to form. The shapes of observed and theoretical spirals agree and the theory predicts that stronger non-axisymmetric forcings at and somewhat beyond corotation will drive more open spirals. I will compare the ratio of ring diameters in theory and in observations and predict that more elliptical rings will correspond to stronger forcings. This theory also provides the right building blocks for the rectangular-like bar outline and for ansae.


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