Found 44 talks width keyword galactic formation

Video
Thursday July 16, 2009
Prof. David Koo
University of California Observatories, Lick Observatory, USA

Abstract

AEGIS (All-wavelength Extended Groth strip International Survey: aegis.ucolick.org) is on-going survey that opens up new views of the development of galaxies and AGN's at redshifts z about 1. AEGIS is panchromatic like GOODS, with coverage ranging from X-ray to radio, and nearly as deep but more panoramic by covering a 4x larger region. Its backbone is the most Northern (accessible to the GTC) of the four fields of the DEEP2 Keck spectroscopic survey, which provides not only precision redshifts that yield reliable pairs, groups, and environments, but also internal kinematics and chemical abundances. After an overview of the DEEP and AEGIS surveys, I will share some recent highlights, including using a new kinematic measure for distant galaxies to track Tully-Fisher-like evolution; discovering metal poor, massive, luminous galaxies; finding ubiquitous galactic gas outflows among distant star forming galaxies; and exploring the nature of distant x-ray AGNs.

Video
Tuesday June 23, 2009
Prof. Rafael Guzmán
University of Florida, USA

Abstract

In the local universe, galaxies fall into one of two populations: a star-forming blue cloud and a red sequence lacking star formation. At redshift z ~ 1.5, however, the red sequence has yet to develop. Over the past 9 Gyrs some process has quenched star formation in blue galaxies and caused them to evolve onto the red sequence by fading and/or merging of their stellar populations. While such a transformation may be occurring across the full range of masses, the highest rate of evolution occurs in massive starbursts at the luminous end of the blue cloud. These galaxies are the Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies (LCBGs). In this talk I present preliminary results of a comprehensive multiwavelength survey of LCBGs from z ~ 0 to z ~ 3 we will be carrying out over the next 5 years using several space and ground-based observatories, including the GTC.


Video
Thursday June 11, 2009
Prof. Roger Davies
Department of Physics, University of Oxford, UK

Abstract

The SAURON survey has revised our view of early type galaxies discovering that central disks and multiple kinematic components are common; 75% of the sample have extended ionized gas, often misaligned with the stars; half of S0s and 25% of Es have intermediate age populations. There is a tight relationship between the escape velocity and Mg line strength which holds both within and between galaxies raising uncomfortable questions for hierarchical assembly. Many of the properties of ETGs are related to a measure of their specific angular momentum : slow rotators are triaxial, close to spherical, isotropic and frequently exhibit decoupled central kinematics, whereas fast rotators are intrinsically flatter, oblate, have disk-like (anisotropic) kinematics and often have Mg enhanced disks. In general the slow rotators are more massive and have older populations Only half of the elliptical galaxies exhibit slow rotation, the remainder have stellar disks showing that the historic division by morphological class is physically misleading. We suggest that the contrasting physical properties of fast and slow rotators arise through distinct assembly histories with slow rotators forming in gas free, dry mergers and fast rotators retaining a disk component through a dissipative merger.

Video
Tuesday May 19, 2009
Dr. Ignacio Trujillo
Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Spain

Abstract

Observations have shown that massive galaxies at high redshift have much smaller sizes than galaxies of similar mass today. The mean stellar density of such objects was almost two orders of magnitude higher than the ones we measured in the most massive nearby galaxies, reaching, in some cases, densities similar to those observed in globular clusters. What is the nature of these objects? And, how these objects have been transformed into the present population of massive galaxies? We will summarize the recent findings our group has done on this topic. In particular, we will focus on our search for finding relics of these compact galaxies in the nearby universe, and the effort we have done for measuring the evolution of the velocity dispersion of these galaxies in the last 10 Gyr. The implications of this research within the galaxy formation scenario will be discussed.

Video
Tuesday March 24, 2009
Dr. Lia Athanassoula
Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, France

Abstract

I will propose a new theory to explain the formation and properties of rings and spirals in barred galaxies, focusing on a comparison of theoretical results to observations and giving some predictions for further comparisons. This theory can account for both spirals and rings, the latter both inner and outer. The model outer rings have the observed R1, R_1', R_2, R_2' and R_1R_2 morphologies, including the dimples near the direction of the bar major axis. It explains why the vast majority of spirals in barred galaxies are two armed and trailing and I will discuss what it takes for higher multiplicity arms to form. The shapes of observed and theoretical spirals agree and the theory predicts that stronger non-axisymmetric forcings at and somewhat beyond corotation will drive more open spirals. I will compare the ratio of ring diameters in theory and in observations and predict that more elliptical rings will correspond to stronger forcings. This theory also provides the right building blocks for the rectangular-like bar outline and for ansae.


Video
Wednesday January 28, 2009
Dr. Francesco Sylos Labini
Institute for Complex Systems, CNR, Italy

Abstract

The Sloan Digital Sky Survey is currently the largest spectroscopic survey of extragalactic objects and one of the most ambitious observational programs ever undertaken in astronomy, measuring about 1 million redshifts and thus providing a three dimensional mapping of the local universe up to a depth of several hundreds of Mpc. The main characteristic of galaxy distribution in this survey, and in the Two degree Field Galaxy redshift Survey completed few years ago, is that large scale structures have been found to extend to scales of the order of hundreds of mega parsecs. However the standard determination of a characteristic length scale, statistically describing galaxy correlations, is of only few mega parsecs: the standard explanation of this apparent mismatch is that large scale structures have small amplitude relative to the average density. We show that, in the newest galaxy samples, large scale structures are quite typical and correspond to large fluctuation in the galaxy density field, making the standard interpretation untenable. We show that the standard statistical analysis is affected by systematics which are due to inconsistent assumptions. We point out that standard theoretical models of structure formation are unable to explain the existence of the large fluctuations in the galaxy density field detected in these samples. This conclusion is reached in two ways: by considering the scale, determined by a linear perturbation analysis of a self-gravitating fluid, below which large fluctuations are expected in standard models and through the determination of statistical properties of mock galaxy catalogs generated from cosmological N-body simulations. Finally we discuss the implications of this results in relation to recent attempts to describe inhomogeneous models in general relativity and to the recent discoveries of large scale coherent bulk flows.

Video
Thursday January 22, 2009
Dr. Anne-Marie Weijmans
Leiden Observatory, the Netherlands

Abstract

From galaxy formation theory we expect galaxies to be embedded in massive dark matter haloes. For spiral and dwarf galaxies this has indeed been observationally confirmed, by modeling the kinematics from the large cold gas discs that often surround these galaxies. These gas discs are however rare in elliptical galaxies, so that we have to resort to other tracers when we want to probe their dark matter haloes, which are not always easily accessible. As a result, dark haloes for only a handful of early-type galaxies have been mapped. In this talk I will give an overview of the methods that can be used to find dark matter in early-type galaxies. I will then focus on two projects that I worked on with the integral-field spectrograph SAURON, using two different methods to constrain the dark halo. The first is based on the combination of two-dimensional ionised gas and cold gas kinematics. The second method uses SAURON as a 'photon collector', to obtain spectra at large radii in galaxies. From these spectra we can not only obtain the velocity profile and construct mass models to constrain the dark halo, but also infer the properties of the stellar halo population. I will show the results from these two projects and discuss some future prospects.

Video
Saturday December 20, 2008
Prof. Julio Navarro
University of Victoria, Canada

Abstract

I will review the status of our understanding of galaxy formation in the prevailing cold dark matter paradigm. After reviewing the successes and failures of the most natural predictions of this scenario I will focus on the consequences of two of its main predictions: the presence of large numbers of low-mass dark matter halos and the prevalence of accretion events during the formation of normal galaxies. In particular, I will discuss the interpretation of the recent discovery of a population of ultra-faint galaxies in the Local Group, and its relation to the profuse cold dark matter substructure expected in the Galactic halo. I will also discuss the importance that accretion events might have had in shaping not only the stellar halo but also the disk component(s) of the Milky Way.

Video
Tuesday November 25, 2008
Dr. Sebastián Hidalgo Ramírez
Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Spain

Abstract

We are going to present a new code to derive the SFH of a complex stellar population system, like a galaxy. This code has been used to obtain the SFH of six dwarf galaxies from the Local Constrains form Isolated Dwarf (LCID) project for which we are presenting the first results. The project has been designed to obtain the SFH of isolated dwarf galaxies free from strong interactions with massive host galaxies, like the MW or M31. The results obtained could help us to understand the spatial structure of dwarf galaxies and how galaxies form and evolve.

Video
Monday November 17, 2008
Dr. Lee Spitler
Swinburne University, Australia

Abstract

In the Λ-CDM galaxy formation paradigm, the star formation history of a galaxy is coupled to the total mass of its dark matter halo through processes like galaxy-galaxy merging, satellite accretion, and gas retention. Globular cluster formation is known to coincide with strong star formation events in the early Universe. To develop an accurate model of galaxy formation, the relationship between such systems and their hosting dark matter halos must be understood. Employing weak gravitational lensing galaxy mass analysis, we have discovered that the number of globular clusters in a given galaxy is directly proportional to its total dark matter halo mass. This result holds in both dwarf and giant ellipticals, spirals and in all types of galaxy environments. I will present these observations and initiate a discussion on the implications for scenarios of globular cluster system formation and evolution.


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