Found 6 talks width keyword magnetic fields
Massive stars (at least eight times as massive as the Sun) possess strong stellar winds driven by radiation. With the advent of the so called MiMeS collaboration, an increasing number of these massive stars have been confirmed to have global magnetic fields. Such magnetic fields can have significant influence on the dynamics of these stellar winds which are strongly ionized. Such interaction of the wind and magnetic field can generate copious amount of X-rays, they can spin the star down, they can also help form large scale disk-like structures. In this presentation I will discuss the nature of such radiatively-driven winds and how they interact with magnetic fields.
On the Sun, the presence of magnetic flux at the photosphere is closely linked to (1) steady heating of the overlying atmosphere and (2) transient brightenings, the largest of which are flares. I will discuss statistical properties of both phenomena, with an emphasis on aspects of each that might apply to other astrophysical objects, such as other stars or stellar remnants, and perhaps AGNs. Regarding heating, power-law scalings have been found to relate magnetic flux with steady coronal emission in both soft X-ray (SXR) and EUV ranges. A key observation is that the details of magnetic structure (field strengths and their spatial gradients, including measured electric currents) appear not to affect heating rates. Similar SXR scalings have been reported for G,K, and M dwarfs and classical T-Tauri stars. Departures from such scalings, whether on the Sun, other stars, or other objects, might reveal important aspects of the heating mechanisms that drive steady emission, and should be sought. Regarding flaring, again a power-law scaling between magnetic flux and flare SXR emission has been found, but with a different exponent. Differences in these scalings suggest that steady heating fundamentally differs from flare heating, disfavoring the “nanoflare” hypothesis (i.e., that steady coronal heating arises from many weak, unresolved flares that are essentially scaled-down versions of larger flares). Analogous differences in the scalings of steady vs. flaring luminosities with magnetic flux on other objects could constrain processes driving each type of emission. Another key property of flares is that they extract energy from the magnetic field, which in the solar case leads to measurable changes in field strengths after flares – photospheric field strengths tend to increase, coronal fields tend to decrease. It is possible that analogous changes could be observed on other stars or objects (via, e.g., Zeeman or synchrotron methods).
Following Cowling's anti-dynamo theorem of 1933, there was a long period during which the very existence of dynamos was unclear. Even with the emergence of three dimensional simulations in the late 1980s, people were careful to distinguish true dynamos from just some sort of amplification. Meanwhile, we know of many examples of true dynamos - not only from simulations, but also from several laboratory experiments. Nevertheless, there are still problems, fundamental ones and also very practical ones. After all, we are really not sure how the solar dynamo works. Today, global three-dimensional simulations seem to have an easier time to reproduce the behaviors of superactive stars, but not really the group of inactive stars, to which also the Sun belongs. The Sun itself may actually be special; it has so well defined cycles and it is at the brink of becoming very different. Theoretically, slightly slower rotators should have antisolar rotation, but it is possible that some of those stars never become that slow if stellar breaking ceases for some reason. Sun and starspots are very evident indicators of solar and stellar activity. Their formation is also not well understood. Polarimetry reveals their magnetic helicity, which can be detected even with the solar wind.
Planetary systems have been found systematically orbiting main sequence stars and red giants. But the detection of planets per se during the white dwarf phase has been more elusive with only 3 systems. We have, however, ample indirect evidence of the existence of planetary debris around these systems in the form of material acreted onto the white dwarf, disks and even planetesimals. In this talk, I will review how we can put the pieces together: how we can reconcile what we see in white dwarfs with what we can infer regarding the evolution of planetary systems from the main sequence phase.
As astrophysicists, we are used to extracting physical information from the observations. The usual procedure is to propose a parametric physical model to explain the observations and use the observations to infer the values of the parameters. However, in our noisy and ambiguous universe, the solution to the inference problem is usually non-unique or diffuse. For this reason, it is important that our inversion techniques give reliable results. In this talk I present a few recent results (dusty tori of AGN, magnetic fields in central stars of planetary nebulae, oscillations of coronal loops, signal detection) in which our group is applying Bayesian ideas to extract information from the observations.
Solar magnetism may look deceptively boring (a rather common star with relatively low activity). As it turns out, even the most quiet areas of the Sun (away from the sunspots) harbour a rich and interesting magnetic activity which is extremely complex and dynamic at spatial scales as small as ~100 km. And more importantly, this magnetism permeates most of the Sun, all the time. Therefore, it is not surprising that it might play an important role for solving some longstanding questions of stellar magnetism as: how is the million degree corona maintained when all sunspots have disappeared during the minimum of magnetic activity? And this is of interest not only for solar physics but for stellar astrophysics too, since it is expected that every star with a convective envelope harbours small-scale magnetic activity that we cannot hope to observe with the great detail we observe it in the Sun. From the first evidence of the presence of magnetic fields in the quiet areas of the Sun to the discovery of the smallest organised magnetic structures ever observed in a stellar surface just 30 years have passed. In this seminar, I will give an overview of our present knowledge about the small-scale quiet Sun magnetism. In particular, I will show how small loops of sizes of several hundreds of kilometers appear in the surface and travel across the solar atmosphere, reaching upper layers and having direct implications on chromospheric (coronal) magnetism. I will also show some of the properties of these newly discovered magnetic structures such as their spatial distribution, a key ingredient for understanding their origin.
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- Ultra-Diffuse Galaxies (UDGs) and the Stellar Mass – Halo Mass Relationship Dr. Jonah GannonTuesday June 6, 2023 - 12:30 GMT+1 (Aula)
- The complex Milky Way historyDr. Cristina ChiappiniThursday June 8, 2023 - 10:30 GMT+1 (Aula)