Colloquia

Talks given by high profile astronomers and scientists.


Video
Thursday September 10, 2009
Prof. Piergiorgio Picozza
University of Roma, Italy

Abstract

New results on the antiproton-to-proton and positron-to-all electron ratios over a wide energy range (1 – 100 GeV) have been obtained by the PAMELA mission. These data are mainly interpreted in terms of dark matter annihilation or pulsar contribution. The instrument PAMELA, in orbit since June 15th, 2006 on board the Russian satellite Resurs DK1, is daily delivering to ground 16 Gigabytes of data. The apparatus is designed to study charged particles in the cosmic radiation, with a particular focus on antiparticles for searching antimatter and signals of dark matter annihilation. A combination of a magnetic spectrometer and different detectors allows antiparticles to be reliably identified from a large background of other charged particles. The talk will illustrate the most important scientific results obtained by PAMELA, together with some of the more recent theoretical interpretations.


Video
Thursday July 16, 2009
Prof. David Koo
University of California Observatories, Lick Observatory, USA

Abstract

AEGIS (All-wavelength Extended Groth strip International Survey: aegis.ucolick.org) is on-going survey that opens up new views of the development of galaxies and AGN's at redshifts z about 1. AEGIS is panchromatic like GOODS, with coverage ranging from X-ray to radio, and nearly as deep but more panoramic by covering a 4x larger region. Its backbone is the most Northern (accessible to the GTC) of the four fields of the DEEP2 Keck spectroscopic survey, which provides not only precision redshifts that yield reliable pairs, groups, and environments, but also internal kinematics and chemical abundances. After an overview of the DEEP and AEGIS surveys, I will share some recent highlights, including using a new kinematic measure for distant galaxies to track Tully-Fisher-like evolution; discovering metal poor, massive, luminous galaxies; finding ubiquitous galactic gas outflows among distant star forming galaxies; and exploring the nature of distant x-ray AGNs.

Video
Thursday June 11, 2009
Prof. Roger Davies
Department of Physics, University of Oxford, UK

Abstract

The SAURON survey has revised our view of early type galaxies discovering that central disks and multiple kinematic components are common; 75% of the sample have extended ionized gas, often misaligned with the stars; half of S0s and 25% of Es have intermediate age populations. There is a tight relationship between the escape velocity and Mg line strength which holds both within and between galaxies raising uncomfortable questions for hierarchical assembly. Many of the properties of ETGs are related to a measure of their specific angular momentum : slow rotators are triaxial, close to spherical, isotropic and frequently exhibit decoupled central kinematics, whereas fast rotators are intrinsically flatter, oblate, have disk-like (anisotropic) kinematics and often have Mg enhanced disks. In general the slow rotators are more massive and have older populations Only half of the elliptical galaxies exhibit slow rotation, the remainder have stellar disks showing that the historic division by morphological class is physically misleading. We suggest that the contrasting physical properties of fast and slow rotators arise through distinct assembly histories with slow rotators forming in gas free, dry mergers and fast rotators retaining a disk component through a dissipative merger.

Video
Thursday March 26, 2009
Dr. Michael Atiyah
University of Edinburgh, UK

Abstract


Video
Thursday March 26, 2009
Prof. Sebastiá Xambó
Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña, Spain

Abstract

En una parte preliminar se recordarán unos pocos hechos experimentales obtenidos durante las últimas décadas, con énfasis en fenómenos puramente cuánticos como el entrelazamiento y el teletransporte, y también algunos hechos matemáticos elementales, con énfasis en las matrices hermíticas y unitarias. En una segunda parte se presentará un modelo matemático de la noción de q-ordenador y de conceptos subordinados como puertas q-lógicas, q-computación y q-algoritmos programas, con énfasis en los ejemplos, incluyendo la q-transformada de Fourier y el q-algoritmo de Shor de factorización en tiempo polinómico de números enteros positivos. A continuación se sumarizará un enfoque axiomático de la mecánica cuántica y se usará para relacionar las q-nociones anteriores con sus posibles realizaciones físicas, con énfasis en algunos problemas abiertos y en posibles líneas de trabajo futuro. La base de este material es la tesis de máster de Juanjo Rué,  "Un modelo matemático para la computación cuántica: fundamentos, algoritmos y aplicaciones" (julio de 2007), dirigida por Lluís Torner y el conferenciante.


Video
Thursday March 12, 2009
Dr. Nick Scoville
California Institute of Technology, USA

Abstract

The COSMOS survey is the largest high redshift galaxy evolution survey ever done -- imaging 2 square degrees with all major space-based and ground based observatories. I will describe the key data in the survey and then present recent results on large-scale structures, the dark matter distributions and galaxy evolution.

Video
Thursday February 19, 2009
Prof. Carlos Frenk
Institute for Computational Cosmology, Physics Dept, Durham University

Abstract

The standard model of cosmology -- the ``Lambda cold dark matter'' model -- is based on the idea that the dark matter is a collisionless elementary particle, probably a supersymmetric particle. This model (which mostly dates back to an early workshop in Santa Barbara in the 1980s) has been famously verified by observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation and the large-scale distribution of galaxies. However, the model has yet to be tested conclusively on the small scales appropriate to most astronomical objects, such as galaxies and clusters. I will review our current understanding of the distribution of dark matter on small scales which derives largely from large cosmological N-body simulations and I will discuss prospects for detecting dark matter, either through its gravitational effect on galaxies and clusters or, more directly, through gamma-ray annihilation radiation.

Video
Sunday January 18, 2009
Prof. Juan Torres López
University of Sevilla, Spain

Abstract

Aunque en otras ocasiones se habían producido episodios financieros muy críticos, en los últimos meses se viene sufriendo una perturbación de las finanzas internacionales muy singular por su extraordinaria magnitud y por los efectos que está produciendo sobre el resto de la economía. Se puede conocer ya con suficiente rigor sus causas pero los gobiernos y los organismos internacionales no aciertan a la hora de ponerle remedios. En la conferencia se pondrán de relieve sus orígenes y las opciones políticas disponibles para afrontarla.

Video
Saturday December 20, 2008
Prof. Julio Navarro
University of Victoria, Canada

Abstract

I will review the status of our understanding of galaxy formation in the prevailing cold dark matter paradigm. After reviewing the successes and failures of the most natural predictions of this scenario I will focus on the consequences of two of its main predictions: the presence of large numbers of low-mass dark matter halos and the prevalence of accretion events during the formation of normal galaxies. In particular, I will discuss the interpretation of the recent discovery of a population of ultra-faint galaxies in the Local Group, and its relation to the profuse cold dark matter substructure expected in the Galactic halo. I will also discuss the importance that accretion events might have had in shaping not only the stellar halo but also the disk component(s) of the Milky Way.

Video
Thursday November 13, 2008
Prof. Simon White
Max-Planck Institut für Astrophysik, Garching, Germany

Abstract

In our now-standard picture for the growth of structure, dark matter halos are the basic unit of nonlinear structure in the present Universe. I will report results from simulations of galaxy-scale dark halos with more than an order of magnitude better mass resolution than any previously published work. Tests demonstrate detailed convergence for (sub)structures well below a millionth the mass of the final system. Even with such resolution the fraction of halo mass in bound subhalos does not rise above a few percent within the half-mass radius. I will also present a new simulation technique which allows structure in the dark matter distribution to be studied on very much smaller scales. This is required for accurate forecasts of the expected signal both in earth-bound experiments designed to detect dark matter directly, and in indirect detection experiments like GLAST which attempt to image dark matter annihilation radiation at gamma-ray wavelengths.


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