Found 219 talks archived in Galaxies

Tuesday September 5, 2023
Dr. Karla Z. Arellano-Cordova
University of Edinburg


Nebular emission lines are a powerful diagnostic tool for tracing the chemical evolution in star-forming galaxies (SFGs) across cosmic time. Due to their proximity, SGFs are ideal for studying the physical properties, stellar population, and nebular gas in much more detail. The COS Legacy Spectroscopy SurveY (CLASSY) is a treasury survey that comprises UV+optical spectra of 45 local SFGs covering a broad range of physical properties. In this talk, I present the results of the physical conditions and metallicities for the CLASSY sample focused on the impact of the aperture effects of the inferred metallicities and the abundance patterns of several elements. We found that the results for the inferred electron density, temperature, and metallicity derived using different aperture sizes, 1″-3″, are consistent, indicating a uniform mapping of the nebular gas. We also showed that the physical properties derived from the optical are appropriate for observations in the far-UV, allowing a better interpretation of the interplay between the stellar and gas components. I will also discuss the results of the Ne/O, Cl/O, S/O, and Ar/O vs. O/H relations and their behaviour with different galaxy properties (e.g., stellar mass and star formation rate). We found that such abundance ratios follow a constant trend with O/H as expected, except for Ne/O and Ar/O, which show a significant trend at high metallicities. We discuss the scatter involved in the N/O versus O/H relation and its connection with the different UV+optical observables. Finally, we compare these results with the chemical abundances derived at z > 6 galaxies observed with the JWST.

Thursday June 15, 2023
Dr. Sébastien Comerón


Using CGMS deep integral field data we have discovered that the massive galaxy NGC 1277 has no dark matter. This is the first time that a galaxy as massive as the Milky Way or more is found to be dark matter deficient. This result is unexpected within the Lambda-CDM cosmological paradigm. We propose several alternatives to explain this intriguing observation but none is completely satisfactory, so the mystery about how to generate a galaxy without dark matter remains.


ID: 818 9512 1297

Passcode: 460746


Friday May 26, 2023
Dr. Sebastian F. Sanchez Sanchez
Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico


We present the extended data release of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey (eDR). It comprises science-grade quality data for 895 galaxies obtained with the PMAS/PPak instrument at the 3.5 m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory along the last 12 years, using the V500 setup (3700-7500Å, 6Å/FWHM) and the CALIFA observing strategy. It includes galaxies of any morphological type, star-formation stage, a wide range of stellar masses ( ∼10^7-10^12 Msun), at an average redshift of  ∼0.015 (90\% within 0.005 < z <0.05). Primarily selected based on the projected size and apparent magnitude, we demonstrate that it can be volume corrected resulting in a statistically limited but representative sample of the population of galaxies in the nearby Universe. All the data were homogeneously re-reduced, introducing a set of modifications to the previous reduction. The most relevant is the development and implementation of a new cube-reconstruction algorithm that provides an (almost) seeing-limited spatial resolution (FWHM PSF  ∼1.0").  Furthermore we present the analysis performed using the pyPipe3D pipeline for these dataset. We include a description of (i) the analysis performed by the pipeline, (ii) the adopted datamodel for the derived spatially resolved properties and (iii) the catalog of integrated, characteristics and slope of the radial gradients for a set of observational and physical parameters derived for each galaxy. All these data has been distributed through the following webpage:

Tuesday April 18, 2023
Dr. Ismael García Bernete
University of Oxford



Nowadays, it is widely accepted that most galaxies undergo an active phase in their evolution. The impact of the energy released by active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the interstellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy has been proposed as a key mechanism responsible for regulating star formation (SF). The mid-infrared (IR) is the ideal spectral range to investigate the nuclear/circumnuclear regions of AGN since dust extinction is significantly lower compared to the visible range. Furthermore, it provides unique tracers to study the AGN-SF connection such as H2 rotational lines, fine structure lines and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs are also a powerful tool to characterize the ISM in different environments.

Recently, we presented new JWST/MIRI MRS spectroscopy of three Seyfert AGN in which we compare their nuclear PAH emission with that of star-forming regions. This study represents the first of its kind to use sub-arcsecond angular resolution data of local luminous Seyferts (Lbol > 10^44.5 erg/s) with a wide wavelength coverage (4.9-28.1 μm). Our results showed that a suite of PAH features is present in the innermost parts of these Seyfert galaxies. We found that the nuclear regions of AGN lie at different positions of the PAH diagnostic diagrams, whereas the SF regions are concentrated around the average values of SF galaxies. Furthermore, we find that the nuclear PAH emission mainly originates in neutral PAHs while, in contrast, PAH emission originating in the star forming regions favours small ionised PAH grains. Therefore, our results provide evidence that the AGN have a significant impact on the ionization state and size of the PAH grains on scales of ~142-245 pc. This is fundamental since PAH bands are routinely used to measure star-formation activity in near and far SF and active galaxies.

Finally, I will summarise our ongoing JWST work within the GATOS (Galactic Activity, Torus and Outflow Survey) collaboration. In particular, I will focus on our recent study about the survival of PAH molecules in AGN-driven outflows.

Thursday March 2, 2023
Dr. Carlo Cannarozzo



Early-type galaxies: instructions to build them through mergers
Massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) are "red and dead" systems mainly composed of old and metal-rich stellar populations. In a cosmological context, present-day ETGs are believed to be the remnants of a complex stellar mass assembly history marked by several mergers, which are the consequence of the underlying hierarchical assembly of their host dark matter halos. In this talk, I will deal mainly with the merger-driven evolution of ETGs. Firstly, I will illustrate a comparison between observed ETGs from the MaNGA survey and simulated galaxies from the IllustrisTNG cosmological simulation suite. The aim of this study is to provide an interpretative scenario of the stellar mass assembly history of observed present-day ETGs, comparing the radial distributions of their stellar properties with those of simulated galaxies, in which it is possible to disentangle the contribution of stars formed in situ (i.e. within the main progenitor galaxy) and stars formed ex situ (i.e. in other galaxies) and then accreted through mergers. Then, I will describe how the scaling relation between the stellar mass and stellar velocity dispersion in ETGs evolves across cosmic time. Specifically, by extending the results of Cannnarozzo, Sonnenfeld & Nipoti (2020), I model the aforementioned relation through a Bayesian hierarchical approach, considering ETGs with log(M∗/M⊙) > 9 over the redshift range 0 ≲ z ≲ 4. Together with a new characterisation of the relation, I reconstruct the back-in-time evolutionary pathways of individual ETGs on the stellar mass-velocity dispersion plane to answer the question “how did high-redshift ETGs assemble through cosmic time to reach the functional form of the relation in the present-day Universe?“.
After the main topic, if time permits, I would like to spend a few minutes presenting another extra content (below you can find the title and a brief abstract of this further content). Feel free to include it or not in the announcement mail.
EXTRA - Inferring the Dark Matter halo mass in galaxies from other observables with Machine Learning
In the context of the galaxy-halo connection, it is widely known that the Dark Matter (DM) halos show correlations with some physical properties of the hosted galaxy: the most well-known relation is the so-called Stellar-to-Halo-Mass Relation. However, we know that there are several other empirical relations among galaxy properties, involving, for example, the stellar mass, the gas and stellar metallicities, the black hole mass, etc. Given the complexity of the problem and the high number of galaxy properties that might be related to DM halos, the study of the galaxy-halo connection can be approached by relying on machine learning techniques to shed light on this intricate network of relations. With the aim of inferring the DM halo mass and then finding a unique functional form able to link the halo mass to other observables in real galaxies, I rely on the state-of-the-art Explainable Boosting Machine, a novel implementation of generalised additive models with pairwise interactions, training a model on the IllustrisTNG simulation suite at different redshift.





Thursday February 23, 2023
Prof. Mauro D'Onofrio
University of Padova


I present a detailed analysis of the scaling relations of ETGs and suggest a way to predict the evolution of the distributions of galaxies in these planes. This new approach is able to account of several features observed in the FP projections and of the tilt of the Fundamental Plane.


Thursday February 16, 2023
Dr. Rogério Riffel
Astronomy Department of the Physics Institute of the Federal Universisty of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS)



Since the pioneering studies linking the mass of supermassive black holes (SMBH) with the velocity dispersion of their host galaxies bulges it has become accepted that the products of active galactic nuclei (AGN) accretion and star-formation (SF) are somehow related. It is also accepted that nuclear SF and AGN can coexist in the inner region of galaxies, suggesting that the growth of SMBH (by gas accretion) and galaxies (by forming stars) are coupled.  In terms of galaxy evolution, it is established that AGN feedback plays a fundamental role by impacting SF (quenching, suppressing, or triggering). Cosmological simulations performed without the inclusion of feedback (SNR/AGN) effects are not able to reproduce the low and high luminosity ends of the galaxy luminosity function and underestimate the ages of the stars of the most massive galaxies when compared with observations.  While observations have shown that nuclear star formation is common in AGNs, properly measuring the stellar population properties in AGNs hosts is particularly difficult, since the active nucleus will dilute the absorption features and contribute to a large number of ionizing photons that will make it difficult to use emission line fluxes to infer the stellar properties.  In this seminar, I will discuss the results we have obtained in our group when mapping the stellar population in the inner region of active galaxies, with a special focus on the near-infrared spectral region, which allows for a better untangling of the AGN and stellar contributions for the spectral energy distribution of the galaxies. 

Meeting ID: 817 0462 3667
Passcode: 643393

Tuesday February 14, 2023
Dr. Nicolas Martin
Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg


Dwarf galaxies are powerful tools of near-field cosmology and galactic archaeology: their numbers, distribution, and star formation can be linked to both the tenets of LCDM (the missing satellite "problem," their (an)isotropic distribution, their dark matter content) and to the build up of their hosts and their environment (accretion, quenching). The exquisite detail offered by observation of the nearby Milky Way dwarf galaxies has built a picture of what dwarf galaxies are and how they evolved through time. In this talk, I will review the increasingly sharp view we are building of the dwarf-galaxy system of the Milky Way's "sister" galaxy, Andromeda, and emphasize key similarities and differences between these two systems of satellites in the hope to learn what features are common or, on the contrary, driven by the different pasts of the Milky Way and Andromeda.

Thursday December 15, 2022
Dr. Rui Marques-Chaves
Univ. Genève


In this talk, I will present recent results on a new sample of extremely UV-luminous star-forming galaxies at z=2-4 discovered within the 9000deg^2-wide Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey database of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. These puzzling sources show apparent magnitudes rivaling those of bright QSOs, but without any hint of AGN activity or being magnified by gravitational lensing. Instead, these sources are characterized by very young stellar populations (~ 10 Myr) and compact morphologies. The two highest-redshift sources in our sample show very high Lyman continuum (LyC, with >13.6 eV) escape fractions, up to fesc(LyC)~90%, being the most powerful ionizing sources identified so far among the star-forming galaxy population, both in terms of the intrinsic LyC photon production rate and escape. With SFRs~1000 Msun/yr, but almost un-obscured, and specific star formation sSFR >50-100 Gyr^-1, these sources are very efficient star-forming galaxies, possibly representing a short-lived phase in the evolution of massive and compact galaxies. I will highlight some unique properties observed in these sources including LyC emission, complex Lyman-alpha profiles, strong wind lines, SEDs, among others. Finally, I discuss the properties of these UV-bright sources in the broad context of galaxy formation and evolution, and possible implications to cosmic reionization.

Thursday December 1, 2022
Dr. Virginia Cuomo
Universidad de Atacama


Bars are prominent features observed in most disc galaxies, having a crucial

role in the secular evolution of their hosts. Indeed, they redistribute material
within the galaxies, while rotating around the centre at a given angular frequency,
the bar pattern speed.
When formed in an isolated galaxy, a bar is expected to be born as fast rotating
with a bar rotation rate R (a parameter used to describe the bar pattern speed)
equal to 1.0 ≤ R ≤ 1.4. During its evolution, the bar can be slowed through the
exchange of angular momentum with the other components and/or when an efficient
dynamical friction is exerted by the dark matter (DM) halo. In this case, R is
shifted in the slow regime (R > 1.4), while the bar radius and strength are increasing.
On the other hand, ultrafast (UF) bars, with R < 1.0, are physically unstable.
Measuring the bar rotation rate becomes desirable both to investigate the secular
evolution of barred galaxies and to test whether the measured DM distribution matches
that predicted by cosmological simulations in the cold DM framework.
The only model-independent way to recover the bar pattern speed (and derive R) is
the Tremaine-Weinberg (TW) method, nowadays largely applied thanks to the advent
of integral-field spectroscopy: most of the analysed bars are compatible with the
fast regime, while a non-negligible fraction belongs to the unstable UF regime.
As a consequence, the question arises whether these results are biased by an
improper application of the method or instead they come from a not completely
theoretically understanding of the nature of slow/UF bars.
We explore the open questions on bar pattern speed with the TW method by
1. testing the reliability of the TW measurements which led to UF bars
2. pushing further the quest of slow bars applying the TW method to a sample of
dwarf galaxies, the best candidates to host slowly-rotating bars, since they are
commonly thought to host a massive and centrally-concentrated DM halo.
We measure the bar radius from the analysis of the maps tracing the transverse-to-radial
force ratio, showing that UF bars are no longer observed when the correct measurement
of the bar radius is adopted to derive R.
We apply the TW method to dedicated MUSE observations of a sample of 5 dwarf barred
galaxies from the Virgo cluster, showing that the analysed bars are slowly-rotating. This
suggests they could have been slowed down by a dense and massive DM halo.

Meeting ID: 885 2034 1620     
Passcode: 818629



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