Found 121 talks archived in Stars
The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is now performing scientific observations and the results of the second open observing cycle solicitation is about to be announced. With an available wavelength coverage from the visual to sub-mm wavelengths and a long life time - including planned instrument upgrades, SOFIA will provide critical resource for the astronomical community for the next decade and beyond. Current and expected SOFIA instruments provide heterodyne spectroscopy in the THz band, including the line of [O I], [C II] and [N II] as well as OH, HD and many other hydrides, at high spectral resolution. Echelle spectroscopy in the Mid-infrared (MIR) which will allow observations of e.g. fine-structure lines of and H2 pure rotational lines. These will help address questions of interstellar chemistry and physics in star forming regions, PDRs and galaxies. Mid-infrared (MIR) grism spectroscopy, of e.g. dust and ices, can be used to address questions of the freeze-out of molecules from the gas phase to better understand the formation, destruction and characteristics of interstellar ices. Imaging in the MIR and FIR and FIR polarimetry can provide a more complete picture of the temperature, density and magnetic field structure of e.g. star forming cores. I will highlight the current and expected capabilities of SOFIA and some of the early science results achieved.
In the last years star-forming regions and massive protostars have been suggested to be gamma-ray emitters. Isolated massive protostars present powerful outflows interacting with the surrounding medium. Some of these sources power non-thermal radio jets, indicative of particle acceleration up to relativistic energies. At the jet-termination region strong shocks form which can lead to gamma-ray emission, as theoretical models predict. It has also been prognosticated that the combined effect of several low-mass protostellar objects may produce significant amount of gamma rays. We present here two studies: IRAS 16547- 4247, an isolated protostar showing non-thermal radio emission; and Monoceros R2, a star forming region coincident with a source of the 2nd Fermi-LAT catalog. In the first case, we analized archival X-ray data and detected the source. We also studied the system in a broad- band one-zone model context and tried to fit the X-ray detection with a non-thermal model. In the second case, we analyzed 3.5 years of Fermi-LAT data and confirmed the source with a detection above 12 sigma. Our results are compatible with the source being the result the combined effect of multiple young stellar objects in Monoceros R2.
Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are the most powerful sources of electromagnetic radiation in the Universe. There are many open questions about their origin and their nature, and the answers should be searched in the large amount of data collected during these last years. We focused on the study of the their X-ray and optical afterglow properties, as observed by the Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and ground-based optical telescopes. We investigated the observer and rest-frame properties of all GRBs observed by Swift between December 2004 and December 2010 with spectroscopic redshift through a comprehensive statistical analysis of the XRT light-curves of GRBs carried out in a model-independent way. We found out a three parameter correlation that is followed both by short and long GRBs. We also carried out a systematic analysis of the optical data available in literature for the same GRBs to investigate the GRB emission mechanisms and to study their environment properties. Our analysis shows that the gas-to-dust ratios of GRBs are larger than the values calculated for the Milky Way, the Large Magellanic Cloud, and the Small Magellanic Cloud. In this talk I will show the major results of the analysis of this large set of data.
Fundamental properties of brown dwarfs, such as luminosity and effective temperature, evolve with age. Large samples of spectroscopically-confirmed substellar objects with well-determined ages and distances are needed to constrain those parameters. We are embarked in a spectroscopic follow-up with GTC/OSIRIS of low-mass member candidates selected in several open clusters to constrain their membership. Here I will present the first L dwarf member in Praesepe confirmed by photometry, astrometry, and spectroscopy. We derived an optical spectral type of L0.3+/-0.4 and a mass placing it at the hydrogen-burning boundary. Considering the measured equivalent width of the gravity-sensitive sodium doublet, and the derived membership probability of ~80% or higher, we conclude that this object is likely to be a true member of Praesepe, with evidence of being a binary system.
We discuss the role and significance of molecules in the modern astrophysics. Molecular opacities govern the structure of model atmospheres of late-type stars and ultracool dwarfs. Some problems of computations of model atmosphere and synthetical spectra of cool stars are discussed. We present some successful attempts of the application of the molecular spectroscpy for the studies of late -type stars and ultracool dwarfs. Finally, some problems of fitting theoretical spectra to the observed SED are discussed.
X-ray observations performed by several missions during the last few decades have provided a very large data base on black hole X-ray binaries. Many of these objects are transient systems that spend most part of their lives in quiescence, showing occasional outburst where their luminosity increases up to eight orders of magnitude. I will review the state-of-the-art in the field, focussing on the different accretion regimes observed in these sources. In the second part of the talk I will concentrate on the influence that the orbital inclination (i.e., viewing angle) has in the spectral properties of black hole binaries, with emphasis on the detection of relativistic effects in the inner accretion flow surrounding the black hole.
The stellar spectroscopic sequence has now been extended into very cool objects bridging the gap between low-mass stars and classical planets. Those objects, called Y dwarfs, are the coolest substellar objects known to date with temperatures below 500 Kelvins. We obtained z-band far-red imaging for six Y dwarfs and a T9+Y0 binary with GTC/OSIRIS to characterise their spectral energy distribution. This photometric dataset represent the first optical detection of Y dwarfs. I will present the z-band photometry, optical-to-infrared colours, and proper motions of these Y dwarfs. I will discuss the larger dispersion in the optical-to-infrared colours of Y dwarfs than in warmer brown dwarfs, which may originate from presence of sulfide clouds, the depletion of alcalines, and/or gravity effects.
X-ray transients are binary systems composed by a 'normal' star which is transfering mass onto a compact object (either a black hole or a neutron star) through Roche lobe overflow. These systems show sporadic outburst episodes and long quiescence states, being ideal systems to search for stellar-mass black holes. Different studies predict a Galactic population of ~10^3-10^4 X-ray transients, however, there are only 18 stellar-mass black holes dynamically confirmed (and other ~32 candidates whichc share similar timing and spectral properties).
In this talk I'll present the case of Swift J1357.2-0933, a new X-ray transient discovered in 2011. Our analysis shows that Swift J1357.2-0933 is the first black hole transient seen at a large inclination (>75º). High time resolution lightcurves show dips or eclipses produced by a vertical structure present in the inner accretion rather than the companion star. Some dips display up to ~50% reduction of flux in ~2min (~30% reduction of flux in 7s). Moreover, the dips present a recurrence period of a few minutes which increases with time. This can only be explained by the expansion of the obscuring structure outward in the accretion. Swift J1357.2-0933 could be the prototype of an hytherto Galactic population of black hole transients with large inclinations.
The fate of ionizing radiation from massive stars has fundamental consequences on scales ranging from the physics of circumstellar disks to the ionization state of the entire universe. On galactic scales, the radiative feedback from massive stars is a major driver for the energetics and phase balance of the interstellar medium in star-forming galaxies. While even starburst galaxies appear to be largely optically thick in the Lyman continuum, ionization-parameter mapping shows that significant populations of HII regions within galaxies are optically thin, powering the diffuse, warm ionized medium. I will discuss our multi-faceted work to clarify our understanding of radiative feedback in star-forming galaxies from the Magellanic Clouds to starbursts.
In recent years accurate photometric and spectroscopic observations have
provided sound evidence that Galactic Globular Clusters can not be longer
considered the prototype of Simple Stellar Populations. In this talk we
present the most recent updates concerning the empirical evidence and
discuss the theoretical framework required for interpreting observations.
Current shortcomings in the interpretation of how the multiple stellar
populations formed in a given cluster are also discussed.
- IAU G5 -- The GALAH survey: science goals and highlights to dateSarah MartellTuesday January 25, 2022 - 10:30 GMT (Online)
- Dynamos, the drivers of solar and stellar activityProf. Axel BrandenburgThursday January 27, 2022 - 10:30 GMT (Online)