Found 21 talks width keyword galactic clusters

Thursday November 24, 2022


Since the second half of last century, stellar evolution theory has allowed to
understand the Color Magnitude Diagram of galactic star clusters, so that now
we can explain the distribution of stars in the observed CMDs in terms of the nuclear
evolution of stellar structures and, thus, in terms of cluster age and chemical composition.
In the last decades, however, the impressive amount of data collected by photometric, astrometric,
spectroscopic and asteroseismic surveys is providing a detailed observational framework which
provides at the same time a stringent test and a challenge for the accuracy of the models.
In the same time, these stellar models are a crucial input for asteroseismology as well
as Galactic archeology studies. In this talk, we discuss (some of) the main uncertainties affecting stellar models and
how they critically impact on our capability to reliably unveil the chrono-chemo-dynamical
structure of the Galaxy.


The seminar will take place in the Aula.


Meeting ID: 843 0439 9987
Passcode: 509451




Tuesday May 24, 2022
Weizmann Institute


Gravitational dynamical friction affecting the orbits of globular clusters (GCs) was studied extensively as a possible formation mechanism for nuclear star clusters in galaxies. In well-known examples that showcase this phenomenon, like the Milky Way and M31 galaxies, the medium which affects the dynamical friction is dominated by bulge stars. In comparison, the case for dynamical friction in dark matter-dominated systems is much less clear. A puzzling example is the Fornax dwarf galaxy, where the observed positions of GCs have long been suspected to pose a challenge for dark matter, dynamical friction theory, or both. We search for additional systems that are dark matter-dominated and contain a rich population of GCs, offering a test of the mechanism. A possible example is the ultra diffuse galaxy NGC5846-UDG1: we show that GC photometry in this galaxy provide evidence for the imprint of dynamical friction, visible via mass segregation. If confirmed by future analyses of more GC-rich UDG systems, these observations could provide a novel perspective on the nature of dark matter.

Tuesday May 3, 2022



There is a huge amount of astrophysical events that remain barely studied due to the lack of large, multiwavelength and deep optical surveys. This is the Universe at the lowest density of stars, largely unseen by past large field surveys like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS).  For instance, only a handful of galaxy clusters have been observed with enough depth to witness the intracluster light (ICL), made up of stars that drift freely between galaxies in the cluster. Thought to form by the stripping of satellite galaxies as they fall into the cluster, characterising the ICL is key to understanding the assembly mechanisms occurring inside galaxy clusters. Despite its importance, little is known about this light as it is very difficult to observe due to its low surface brightness. 
The availability of deep surveys have expanded our knowledge of the properties, and therefore the origin, of the ICL. However, larger samples are needed to understand the evolution of this component with time and the efficiency of the different evolutionary processes inside galaxy clusters. 
In this talk, I will present the latest advances in our understanding of the ICL. I will also talk about how we can use this light to trace the dark matter in clusters of galaxies and recent results that show the potential of the intracluster light to study these massive structures. 

Thursday May 10, 2018
CEA, Université Paris-Saclay


We present a detailed study of the spatially resolved thermodynamic and hydrostatic mass profiles of the five most massive clusters detected at z~1 via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. These objects represent an ideal laboratory to test our models in a mass regime where structure formation is driven mainly by gravity. We present a method to study these objects that optimally exploits information from XMM-Newton and Chandra observations. The combination of Chandra’s excellent spatial resolution and XMM-Newton’s photon collecting power allows us to spatially resolve the profiles from the core to the outskirts, for the first time in such objects.  Evolution properties are investigated by comparison with the REXCESS  local galaxy cluster sample. Finally, we discuss the current limitations of this method in the context of  joint analysis of future Chandra and XMM large programs and, more generally, of  multi-wavelength efforts to study high redshift objects.

Thursday March 19, 2015
Universidad de Salamanca


The ``dark flow'' dipole is a statistically significant dipole found at the position of galaxy clusters in filtered maps of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropies. The dipole measured in WMAP 3, 5 and 7 yr data releases was roughly aligned with the all-sky CMB dipole and correlated with cluster X-ray luminosity. We analyzed the final WMAP 9 yr and the first Planck data releases using a catalog of 980 clusters outside the Kp0 mask to test our earlier findings. The dipoles measured on these new data sets are fully compatible with our earlier estimates, being similar in amplitude and direction to our previous results and in disagreement with the results of an earlier study by the Planck Collaboration. Further, in Planck data dipoles are independent of frequency, ruling out the Thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich as the source of the effect. The signal is dominated by the most massive clusters, with a statistical significance better than 99%, slightly larger than in WMAP. Since both data sets differ in foreground contributions, instrumental noise and other systematics, the agreement between WMAP and Planck dipoles argues against them being due to systematic effects in either of the experiments.

Tuesday September 16, 2014


The ultra-deep multiwavelength HST Frontier Fields coverage of the Abell Cluster 2744 is used to derive the stellar population properties of its intra-cluster light (ICL). The restframe colors of the ICL of this intermediate redshift (z=0.3064) massive cluster are bluer (g-r=0.68 ±0.04; i-J=0.56±0.01) than those found in the stellar populations of its main galaxy members (g-r=0.83±0.01; i-J=0.75±0.01). Based on these colors, we derive the following mean metallicity Z=0.018±0.007 for the ICL. The ICL age is 6±3 Gyr younger than the average age of the most massive galaxies of the cluster. The fraction of stellar mass in the ICL component comprises at least 6% of the total stellar mass of the galaxy cluster. Our data is consistent with a scenario where the bulk of the ICL of Abell 2744 has been formed relatively recently (z<1). The stellar population properties of the ICL suggest that this diffuse component is mainly the result of the disruption of infalling galaxies with similar characteristics in mass (M*~ 3x10^10 Msolar) and metallicity than our own Milky Way. The amount of ICL mass in the central part of the cluster (<400 kpc) is equivalent to the disruption of 4-6 Milky Way-type galaxies.

Thursday March 20, 2014
School of Astronomy, IPM - Tehran


Majority of galaxies reside in groups and clusters where they are understood to evolve also through galaxy-galaxy interactions. Multiple mergers at the core of galaxy groups can develop a luminosity deficiency or gap, which is quantified as the difference between the luminosity of the two brightest galaxies in groups and clusters. This observable carries important information about the evolution of galaxy groups, for instance, there are indications that collapsed groups with a large luminosity gap, known as fossil groups, are associated with the halos that are relatively old. In a series of recent studies, employing X-ray, optical and radio observations complemented by cosmological simulations, we have utilised the luminosity gap to probe the formation scenarios for galaxies and specially the most luminous galaxies in groups and clusters, introduce a powerful age-date routine for galaxy groups, and also obtain clues about the AGN activities and the IGM heating.

Tuesday January 14, 2014
National Astronomical Observatory of Japan


Galaxy clusters are the perfect places to study both the always controversial nature vs nurture problem and the still not well understood evolution that galaxies follow. By studying the properties of the galaxies at different locations of the cluster we can assess the first problem, while studying the same properties over cosmic time, helps constraining the different proposed evolutionary theories. In this work we have focused in an intermediately-redshift rich cluster, RX J0152.7-1357 (z=0.83), by fully characterizing its stellar population properties with new state-of-the-art tools . By this means, we have derived for the first time in such a high-z cluster the ages, metallicities, abundance patterns and Star Formation Histories of the cluster ETGs on an individual galaxy-basis . The relations that these properties follow with galaxy velocity dispersion allow us to discuss a passive evolution scenario with respect to a cluster at z~0. Our results favor a downsizing picture where the relation between the position within the cluster, the velocity dispersion and the type of star formation history of the galaxies allow us to better understand the cluster evolution. We find that the most massive galaxies evolve passively while the lower-mass ones, generally located at the outskirts of the cluster, experience a more extended star formation history related to their later incorporation in the cluster.

Tuesday January 7, 2014
Observatorio Nacional de Rio de Janeiro


In this talk I will show how we can study cosmolgy in a photometric redshift galaxy survey, by means of the angular clustering of galaxies. Previously to fit your data to a cosmological model, the need for a representative, clean and reliable galaxy catalog imposes many constrains in the selection of your data, from the day the data was taken, up to the final galaxy catalog used in the cosmological Analysis. I will try to introduce those issues that are most important for the analysis of galaxy clustering: data reduction and detection limit, catalog pruning, sample selection, photometric redshifts, star/galaxy separation and the need for a detailed angular and depth mask. Once a neat catalog is build upon the raw data of the survey, the cosmological analysis can start confidently. In this context, I will show as an example, the last cosmological results obtained from the DR8 SDSS-III photometric sample, conveniently corrected from systematic errors.

Wednesday November 13, 2013
Leiden Observatory


Clusters grow by mergers, events which release huge quantities of energy and can produce massive outward-travelling shock waves that can have an important effect on cluster gas and galaxies. Giant radio relics form at these shock fronts, where accelerated electrons emit synchrotron radiation. Despite the great interest in relics, candidates with simple geometry, undisturbed morphology and high surface brightness are scarce. The complex interaction between the merger, the shock wave and gas is likely a fundamental driver of galaxy evolution. The effects of dense environments have been previously investigated for relaxed clusters, but never before in highly disturbed, merging clusters hosting a relic. The Sausage and the Toothbrush clusters are providing us with the chance to study this phenomenon and its effects on the relativistic particles and the cluster galaxies. In order to address many of the unanswered questions, we use a unique combination of facilities (GMRT, WSRT, INT) to obtain the first cluster-wide, multi-wavelength, multi-method analysis aimed at giving a complete picture of merging clusters hosting relics. We derive physical parameters such as the Mach number and injection spectral index for the diffuse sources in the field. We present index and curvature maps pinpointing spectral trends conclusive for shock acceleration of relativistic particles and test injection models such as the Jaffe-Perola and Kardashev-Pacholczyk. This analysis is fully complemented by an Halpha mapping of the cluster volume and outskirts. We provide the first direct test whether the shock drives or prohibits star formation to decipher the role of the merger in shaping the Halpha luminosity function.

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